Foreign Currency Deposits and International Liquidity Shortages in Pakistan
This paper studies the implications of foreign currency deposits (FCDs) for international liquidity shortages in Pakistan. The analysis focuses on how the large volume of FCDs and the specific institutional characteristics of those deposits have made the Pakistan economy highly vulnerable to exogenous shocks. The analysis shows that FCDs created another channel for government borrowing, and fiscal sustainability in a "closed" system may be very different from sustainability in a more "open" system. There is a need to think of these issues in terms of total balance sheet vulnerability, and we recommend measures that would make domestic-currency-denominated assets attractive to investors.
|Date of creation:||01 Sep 2004|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA|
Phone: (202) 623-7000
Fax: (202) 623-4661
Web page: http://www.imf.org/external/pubind.htm
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/pubs/ord_info.htm|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Abbas Mirakhor & Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Islamic Banking," IMF Working Papers 91/88, International Monetary Fund.
- Eduardo Borensztein & Paolo Mauro, 2002. "Reviving the Case for GDP-Indexed Bonds," IMF Policy Discussion Papers 02/10, International Monetary Fund.
- Caballero, Ricardo & Krishnamurthy, Arvind, 2005.
"Exchange Rate Volatility and the Credit Channel in Emerging Markets: A Vertical Perspective,"
824, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2005. "Exchange Rate Volatility and the Credit Channel in Emerging Markets: A Vertical Perspective," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 1(1), pages -, May.
- Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2004. "Exchange Rate Volatility and the Credit Channel in Emerging Markets: A Vertical Perspective," NBER Working Papers 10517, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Caballero, Ricardo J. & Krishnamurthy, Arvind, 2001.
"International and domestic collateral constraints in a model of emerging market crises,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 513-548, December.
- Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2000. "International and Domestic Collateral Constraints in a Model of Emerging Market Crises," NBER Working Papers 7971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chang, R. & Velasco, A., 1998.
"Financial Fragility and the Exchange Rate Regime,"
98-05, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Roberto Chang & Andres Velasco, 1998. "Financial Fragility and the Exchange Rate Regime," NBER Working Papers 6469, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roberto Chang & Andres Velasco, 1997. "Financial fragility and the exchange rate regime," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 97-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Ricardo Hausmann & Ugo Panizza & Ernesto H. Stein, 2000.
"Why Do Countries Float the Way They Float?,"
Research Department Publications
4205, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Leonardo Bartolini & Allan Drazen, 1996.
"Capital account liberalization as a signal,"
11, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Maurice Obstfeld, 1994. "The Logic of Currency Crises," NBER Working Papers 4640, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fischer, Stanley & Summers, Lawrence H, 1989. "Should Governments Learn to Live with Inflation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 382-387, May.
- Barry Eichengreen & Ricardo Hausmann, 1999.
"Exchange Rates and Financial Fragility,"
NBER Working Papers
7418, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barry Eichengreen & Ricardo Hausmann, 1999. "Exchange rates and financial fragility," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 329-368.
- Ricardo J. Caballero, 2003. "The Future of the IMF," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 31-38, May.
- Flood, Robert P. & Garber, Peter M., 1984. "Collapsing exchange-rate regimes : Some linear examples," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 1-13, August.
- Eduardo Borensztein & Paolo Mauro, 2004. "The case for GDP-indexed bonds," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 19(38), pages 165-216, 04.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:04/167. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow)or (Hassan Zaidi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.