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Grants Versus Loans

Author

Listed:
  • Hulya Ulku
  • Tito Cordella

Abstract

Under what conditions should grants be preferred to loans? To answer this question, we present a simple model à la Krugman (1988) and show that, for any given level of developmental assistance, the optimal degree of loan concessionality is positively associated with economic growth if countries are poor, have bad policies, and high debt obligations. We then test our model by estimating a modified growth model for a panel of developing countries, and find evidence supporting our predictions. Finally, we assess the determinants of current aid allocations and find that the degree of concessionality is negatively correlated with countries' levels of development.

Suggested Citation

  • Hulya Ulku & Tito Cordella, 2004. "Grants Versus Loans," IMF Working Papers 04/161, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:04/161
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tito Cordella & Giovanni Dell'Aricca, 2002. "Limits of Conditionality in Poverty Reduction Programs," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(Special i), pages 68-86.
    2. Azam, Jean-Paul & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 2003. "Contracting for aid," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 25-58, February.
    3. Alesina, Alberto & Dollar, David, 2000. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 33-63, March.
    4. Svensson, Jakob, 2000. "Foreign aid and rent-seeking," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 437-461, August.
    5. Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Se (ed.), Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084 Central Bank of Chile.
    6. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    7. Sanford, Jonathan E., 2002. "World Bank: IDA Loans or IDA Grants?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 741-762, May.
    8. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 2000. "Finance and the sources of growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 261-300.
    9. Hansen, Henrik & Tarp, Finn, 2001. "Aid and growth regressions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 547-570, April.
    10. Frey, Bruno S. & Schneider, Friedrich, 1986. "Competing models of international lending activity," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 225-245, March.
    11. Matthew Odedokun, 2004. "Multilateral and Bilateral Loans versus Grants: Issues and Evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(2), pages 239-263, February.
    12. Frank Windmeijer, 2000. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear two-step GMM estimators," IFS Working Papers W00/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    13. repec:cup:apsrev:v:94:y:2000:i:04:p:779-801_22 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Murshed, S Mansoob & Sen, Somnath, 1995. "Aid Conditionality and Military Expenditure Reduction in Developing Countries: Models of Asymmetric Information," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 498-509, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Iimi, Atsushi & Ojima, Yasuhisa, 2008. "Complementarities between grants and loans," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 109-141, March.
    2. Philip Michael Kargbo & Kunal Sen, 2014. "Aid Categories that Foster Pro-Poor Growth: The Case of Sierra Leone," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 26(2), pages 416-429, June.
    3. Daniel Cohen & Pierre Jacquet & Helmut Reisen, 2007. "Loans or Grants?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 143(4), pages 764-782, December.
    4. Axel Dreher & Peter Nunnenkamp & Rainer Thiele, 2008. "Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 291-314, April.
    5. Larru, Jose Maria, 2006. "La ayuda al desarrollo: ¿reduce la pobreza?
      [Foreign Aid: reduce poverty? (in Spanish)]
      ," MPRA Paper 2341, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ugo PANIZZA, 2015. "Debt Sustainability in Low-Income Countries - The Grants versus Loans Debate in a World without Crystal Balls," Working Papers P120, FERDI.
    7. Kimura, Hidemi & Mori, Yuko & Sawada, Yasuyuki, 2012. "Aid Proliferation and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-10.
    8. Raihan, Selim & Razzaque, Mohammad A, 2007. "WTO and regional trade negotiation outcomes: quantitative assessments of potential implications on Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 38475, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Thiele, Rainer & Nunnenkamp, Peter & Dreher, Axel, 2006. "Sectoral aid priorities: Are donors really doing their best to achieve the millennium development goals?," Kiel Working Papers 1266, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    10. Yasuyuki Sawada & Ayako Matsuda & Hidemi Kimura, 2012. "On The Role Of Technical Cooperation In International Technology Transfers," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(3), pages 316-340, April.
    11. Nkunde Mwase, 2011. "Determinants of Development Financing Flows From Brazil, Russia, India, and China to Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 11/255, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Oliver Morrissey, & Olaf Islei, & Daniel M'Amanja, "undated". "Aid Loans versus Aid Grants: Are the Effects Different?," Discussion Papers 06/07, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    13. Dovern, Jonas & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2006. "Aid and growth accelerations: An alternative approach to assess the effectiveness of aid," Kiel Working Papers 1296, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    14. Almuth Scholl, 2013. "Debt Relief for Poor Countries: Conditionality and Effectiveness," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2013-23, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
    15. Gunatilake, H. & Fabella, R.V & Lagman-Martin, A., 2010. "Foreign Aid, Aid Effectiveness and the New Aid Paradigm: A Review," Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics, Sri Lanka Agricultural Economics Association (SAEA), vol. 12.
    16. repec:zbw:ifwkie:3881 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Nunnenkamp, Peter & Thiele, Rainer & Wilfer, Tom, 2005. "Grants versus loans: Much ado about (almost) nothing," Kiel Economic Policy Papers 4, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

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