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Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region


  • International Monetary Fund


This paper demonstrates that instability associated with investment risk is critical in explaining the level of foreign direct investment for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, which generally have higher investment risk than developed countries. The empirical results support this hypothesis, whether either the standard deviation or the interquartile range is used as a measure of instability, in a dynamic panel model. The paper recommends a reorientation of policies toward those with a longer-term focus in order to help lower the degree of risk instability for MENA countries.

Suggested Citation

  • International Monetary Fund, 2004. "Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region," IMF Working Papers 04/139, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:04/139

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 92-96, May.
    2. Aizenman, Joshua, 2003. "Volatility, employment and the patterns of FDI in emerging markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 585-601, December.
    3. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    4. Singh, Harinder & Kwang W. Jun, 1995. "Some new evidence on determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1531, The World Bank.
    5. Robert E. Lipsey, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investors in Three Financial Crises," NBER Working Papers 8084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aizenman, Joshua & Noy, Ilan, 2006. "FDI and trade--Two-way linkages?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 317-337, July.
    2. Abera Demeke & Alwin Keil & Manfred Zeller, 2011. "Using panel data to estimate the effect of rainfall shocks on smallholders food security and vulnerability in rural Ethiopia," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 108(1), pages 185-206, September.
    3. Nasser Saidi, 2003. "Arab Economic Integration: an Awakening to Remove Barriers to Prosperity," Working Papers 0322, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 Jul 2003.
    4. Daniele, Vittorio & Marani, Ugo, 2006. "Do institutions matter for FDI? A comparative analysis for the MENA countries," MPRA Paper 2426, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Arno BAECKER, "undated". "The Development of Trade and Foreign Direct Investment under the Influence of the Barcelona Process – An Initial Assessmentt," Middle East and North Africa 330400007, EcoMod.
    6. Sekkat, Khalid, 2012. "Manufactured Exports and FDI in Southern Mediterranean Countries: Evolution, determinants and prospects," CEPS Papers 6849, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    7. Al Khattab, Adel & Anchor, John R. & Davies, Eleanor M.M., 2008. "The institutionalisation of political risk assessment (IPRA) in Jordanian international firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 688-702, December.
    8. repec:rss:jnljse:v2i3p3 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Aizenman, Joshua & Noy, Ilan, 2005. "FDI and Trade – Two Way Linkages?," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt301285n0, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    10. Brahim Elmorchid & Nouira Ridha & Khalid Sekka, 2013. "A Comparative Analysis of the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in The Arab World and in Asia," Working Papers 811, Economic Research Forum, revised Dec 2013.
    11. Mina, Wasseem Michel, 2012. "The Institutional Reforms Debate and FDI Flows to the MENA Region: The “Best” Ensemble," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 1798-1809.
    12. Mouna Gammoudi & Mondher Cherif, 2016. "Capital Account Openness, Political Institutions And Fdi In Mena Region: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 41(2), pages 53-76, June.
    13. Chali Nondo & Mulugeta S. Kahsai & Yohannes G. Hailu, 2016. "Does institutional quality matter in foreign direct investment?: Evidence from Sub-Saharan African countries," African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1), pages 12-30.

    More about this item


    Foreign direct investment; Multinational firms; MENA countries; fdi; investment risk; direct investment;

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