Nominal Anchors in the CIS
Monetary policy has become increasingly important in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as fiscal adjustment and structural reforms have taken root. Inflation has been brought down to relatively low levels in almost all of these countries, raising the question of what should be the appropriate nominal anchor at this stage. Formally, almost all CIS countries have floating exchange rate regimes, yet in practice they manage their exchange rates very heavily, perhaps because of high levels of dollarization (i.e., they suffer from "fear of floating"). This paper explores the issues underlying the choice of a nominal anchor in CIS countries and seeks to assess whether the present mixed regime will prove durable.
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- Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002.
"Fear of Floating,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
- Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Fear of Floating," NBER Working Papers 7993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2002. "Fear of floating," MPRA Paper 14000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Reinhart, Carmen, 2001. "Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Flexibility Indices," MPRA Paper 13196, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Mirage of Floating Exchange Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 65-70, May.