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Dollarization of Liabilities; Beyond the Usual Suspects

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  • Adolfo Barajas
  • Armando Méndez Morales

Abstract

Dollarization of liabilities (DL) has emerged as a key factor in explaining the vulnerability of emerging markets to financial and currency crises. "Usual suspects" of causing DL comprise "fatalistic" determinants such as a long history of unsound macroeconomic policies and development and institutional factors, aided by moral hazard opportunities related to government guarantees. This paper assesses empirically the relevance of these factors relative to alternative explanations. Based on a sample of Latin American countries, we find that ongoing central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market, relative market power of borrowers, and financial penetration are at least as important in explaining DL.

Suggested Citation

  • Adolfo Barajas & Armando Méndez Morales, 2003. "Dollarization of Liabilities; Beyond the Usual Suspects," IMF Working Papers 03/11, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:03/11
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    Cited by:

    1. Mariya Hake & Fernando Lopez-Vicente & Luis Molina, 2014. "Do the Drivers of Loan Dollarization Differ between CESEE and Latin America? A Meta-Analysis," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), pages 8-35.
    2. Aiba, Daiju & Odajima, Ken & Khou, Vouthy, 2017. "Foreign Currency Borrowing and Risk-Hedging Behavior: Evidence from a Household Survey in Cambodia," Working Papers 143, JICA Research Institute.
    3. Neanidis, Kyriakos C. & Savva, Christos S., 2009. "Financial dollarization: Short-run determinants in transition economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1860-1873, October.
    4. Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar & Basso, Henrique S. & Jurgilas, Marius, 2007. "Financial dollarization: the role of banks and interest rates," Working Paper Series 748, European Central Bank.
    5. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma & Jarko Fidrmuc & Mariya Hake, 2011. "Determinants of Foreign Currency Loans in CESEE Countries: A Meta-Analysis," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 69-87.
    6. Jeanne, Olivier, 2003. "Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow in Foreign Currency?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4030, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Edmar L. Bacha & Márcio Holland & Fernando M. Gonçalves, 2007. "Is Brazil Different? Risk, Dollarization, And Interest In Emerging Markets," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 028, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    8. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Alain Ize, 2005. "Financial De-Dollarization; Is it for Real?," IMF Working Papers 05/187, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Pepić Marina & Marinković Srđan & Radović Ognjen & Malović Marko, 2015. "Determinants of Currency Substitution in Southeast European Countries," Economic Themes, De Gruyter Open, vol. 53(2), pages 162-184, June.
    10. Elisabeth Beckmann & Sandra Dvorsky & Thomas Scheiber, 2011. "OeNB Euro Survey: Growing Uncertainty, but Overall Euroization Not Affected," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 88-99.
    11. Márcio Holland & Edmar L. Bacha & Fernando M. Gonçalves, 2007. "Is Brazil Different? Risk, Dollarization, and Interest Rates in Emerging Markets," IMF Working Papers 07/294, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Alexey Ponomarenko & Alexandra Solovyeva & Elena Vasilieva, 2013. "Financial dollarization in Russia: causes and consequences," Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 221-243.
    13. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hake, Mariya & Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Households’ foreign currency borrowing in Central and Eastern Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1880-1897.
    14. Neanidis, Kyriakos C. & Savva, Christos S., 2013. "Institutions and financial dollarization: Indirect effects based on a policy experiment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, pages 405-410.
    15. Basso, Henrique S. & Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar & Jurgilas, Marius, 2011. "Financial dollarization: The role of foreign-owned banks and interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 794-806, April.
    16. Gianni De Nicolo & Patrick Honohan & Alain Ize, 2003. "Dollarization of the Banking System; Good or Bad?," IMF Working Papers 03/146, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Armando Méndez Morales & Maria del Mar Cacha, 2003. "The Role of Supervisory tools in Addressing Bank Borrowers' Currency Mismatches," IMF Working Papers 03/219, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Luca, Alina & Petrova, Iva, 2008. "What drives credit dollarization in transition economies?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 858-869, May.
    19. Carlos E. León Rincón & Alejandro Revéiz Herault, 2008. "La dolarización financiera: experiencia internacional y perspectivas para Colombia," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 10(18), pages 313-341, January-J.
    20. Salvatore Capasso & Kyriakos C. Neanidis, 2016. "Domestic or Foreign Currency? Remittances and the Composition of Deposits and Loans," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 220, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
    21. Baek, Seung-Gwan, 2013. "On the determinants of aggregate currency mismatch," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 623-637.
    22. Neagu, Florian & Tatarici, Luminita & Mihai, Irina, 2015. "Implementing Loan-to-Value and Debt Service-To-Income measures: A decade of Romanian experience," MPRA Paper 65988, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    23. Nicolo, Gianni De & Honohan, Patrick & Ize, Alain, 2005. "Dollarization of bank deposits: Causes and consequences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1697-1727, July.
    24. Bacha, Edmar & Holland, Marcio & Gonçalves, Fernando M., 2009. "Dolarização financeira, taxa de juros, economias emergentes, análise em painel, Brasil," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 63(4), December.
    25. Marcelin, Isaac & Mathur, Ike, 2016. "Financial sector development and dollarization in emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 20-32.

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