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Social Sector Spending in a Panel of Countries


  • Reza Baqir


This paper presents evidence on the political and economic determinants of social sector spending from a panel dataset. The principal finding is that democratization in countries, as measured by within-country variation in subjective indices of democracy, is a significant predictor of government spending on education and health. The relationship is robust to controlling for a variety of factors and the estimated magnitudes suggest that an increase from the lowest to the highest rating for democracy for a country is associated with approximately 1 percent more central government spending and 3 percent more general government spending in social sectors, as a percent of GDP.

Suggested Citation

  • Reza Baqir, 2002. "Social Sector Spending in a Panel of Countries," IMF Working Papers 02/35, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:02/35

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    Cited by:

    1. Ricardo Martin & Alex Segura-Ubiergo, 2005. "Social Spending in IMF-supported Programs," Public Economics 0504011, EconWPA.
    2. Saleh M. Nsouli & Norbert Funke, 2003. "The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Opportunities and Challenges," IMF Working Papers 03/69, International Monetary Fund.


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