IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis


  • Athanasios Vamvakidis
  • Francis Vitek
  • Mwanza Nkusu
  • Reginald Darius
  • Alun H. Thomas
  • Edouard Vidon


The human cost of the recent global crisis is reflected in its impact on the labor market. Explaining why economies with similar downturns had very different employment trends can help design policies to reduce such costs and improve labor markets. This paper analyzes the recent employment experiences of six economies: Germany, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, and Sweden. These economies represent a wide range of labor market institutions, policy responses, and outcomes to the crisis. The divergence of labor market outcomes and of the effectiveness of policies during the crisis can be explained by the interaction between the nature of the shocks and differences in the structure and institutions of each country’s economy. The worst job losses compared to the drop in output followed permanent shocks, particularly in dual labor markets and in the presence of wage rigidities. Policies to avoid job cuts were much more effective when they were well-targeted and responded to temporary shocks. In contrast, policies to facilitate labor movements were more appropriate following permanent shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Athanasios Vamvakidis & Francis Vitek & Mwanza Nkusu & Reginald Darius & Alun H. Thomas & Edouard Vidon, 2010. "Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis," IMF Staff Position Notes 2010/18, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfspn:2010/18

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bernardo S. de M. Carvalho & Márcio G. P. Garcia, 2008. "Ineffective Controls on Capital Inflows under Sophisticated Financial Markets: Brazil in the Nineties," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Markets Volatility and Performance in Emerging Markets, pages 29-96 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Dennis Reinhardt, 2010. "Into the Allocation Puzzle - A Sectoral Analysis," Working Papers 10.02, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
    3. Javier Bianchi, 2011. "Overborrowing and Systemic Externalities in the Business Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(7), pages 3400-3426, December.
    4. Bikas Joshi & Manuela Goretti & Uma Ramakrishnan & Alun H. Thomas & Atish R. Ghosh & Juan Zalduendo, 2008. "Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures; Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies," IMF Policy Discussion Papers 08/2, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Burnside, Craig & Eichenbaum, Martin & Rebelo, Sergio, 2001. "Hedging and financial fragility in fixed exchange rate regimes," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1151-1193.
    6. Carmen M. Reinhart & R. Todd Smith, 1996. "Too much of a good thing: the macroeconomic effects of taxing capital inflows," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 436-464.
    7. Hutchison, Michael & Kendall, Jake & Pasricha, Gurnain & Singh, Nirvikar, 2009. "Indian capital control liberalization: Evidence from NDF markets," Working Papers 09/60, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    8. Edwards, Sebastian & Rigobon, Roberto, 2009. "Capital controls on inflows, exchange rate volatility and external vulnerability," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 256-267, July.
    9. Edison, Hali & Reinhart, Carmen M., 2001. "Stopping hot money," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 533-553, December.
    10. Eliana Cardoso & Ilan Goldfajn, 1998. "Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 161-202, March.
    11. Montiel, Peter & Reinhart, Carmen M., 1999. "Do capital controls and macroeconomic policies influence the volume and composition of capital flows? Evidence from the 1990s," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 619-635, August.
    12. De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000. "Controls on capital inflows: do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
    13. William Miles, 2004. "Effectiveness of Capital Controls: the Case of Brazil," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 68-80, February.
    14. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2007. "The external wealth of nations mark II: Revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970-2004," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 223-250, November.
    15. Francisco A. Gallego & F. Leonardo Hernández, 2003. "Microeconomic effects of capital controls: The chilean experience during the 1990s," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(3), pages 225-253.
    16. Cardenas, Mauricio & Barrera, Felipe, 1997. "On the effectiveness of capital controls: The experience of Colombia during the 1990s," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 27-57, October.
    17. Akira Ariyoshi & Andrei A Kirilenko & Inci Ötker & Bernard J Laurens & Jorge I Canales Kriljenko & Karl F Habermeier, 2000. "Capital Controls; Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 190, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Martin Schindler, 2009. "Measuring Financial Integration: A New Data Set," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 56(1), pages 222-238, April.
    19. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Paolo Mauro & Andre Faria & Jonathan David Ostry & Julian Di Giovanni & Martin Schindler & Ayhan Kose & Marco Terrones, 2008. "Reaping the Benefits of Financial Globalization," IMF Occasional Papers 264, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Nicolas Magud & Carmen Reinhart & Kenneth Rogoff, 2005. "Capital Controls: Myth and Reality A Portfolio Balance Approach to Capital Controls," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2006-10, University of Oregon Economics Department.
    21. Olivier Blanchard, 2007. "Current Account Deficits in Rich Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 54(2), pages 191-219, June.
    22. Jaewoo Lee & Jonathan David Ostry & Alessandro Prati & Luca A Ricci & Gian M Milesi-Ferretti, 2008. "Exchange Rate Assessments; CGER Methodologies," IMF Occasional Papers 261, International Monetary Fund.
    23. Guonan Ma & RobertN McCauley, 2008. "Efficacy Of China'S Capital Controls: Evidence From Price And Flow Data," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 104-123, February.
    24. Sebastian Edwards, 1999. "How Effective Are Capital Controls?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 65-84, Fall.
    25. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1998. "Capital Flows and Capital-Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 1, pages 35-54, November.
    26. Paolo Mauro & Torbjorn I. Becker & Jonathan David Ostry & Romain Ranciere & Olivier D Jeanne, 2007. "Country Insurance; The Role of Domestic Policies," IMF Occasional Papers 254, International Monetary Fund.
    27. Gupta, Poonam & Mishra, Deepak & Sahay, Ratna, 2007. "Behavior of output during currency crises," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 428-450, July.
    28. Chang, Roberto & Velasco, Andres, 2000. "Banks, debt maturity and financial crises," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 169-194, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Elva Bova & Christina Kolerus & Sampawende Tapsoba, 2015. "A fiscal job? An analysis of fiscal policy and the labor market," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-17, December.
    2. Nicola Acocella & Laura Bisio & Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Alessandra Pelloni, "undated". "Labor market imperfections, real wage rigidities and financial shocks," Working Papers 80/11, Sapienza University of Rome, Metodi e modelli per l'economia, il territorio e la finanza MEMOTEF.
    3. Elva Bova & João Tovar Jalles & Christina Kolerus, 2016. "Shifting the Beveridge Curve; What Affects Labor Market Matching?," IMF Working Papers 16/93, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Vakulenko, E. & Gurvich, E., 2016. "Real Wage Flexibility in Russia: Comparative Analysis," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 31(3), pages 67-92.
    5. Jose Ignacio García Pérez & Victoria Osuna, 2011. "The effects of introducing a single open-ended contract in the Spanish labour market," Working Papers 11.07, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
    6. World Bank, 2011. "Employment Protection Legislation and Labor Market Outcomes : Theory, Evidence and Lessons for Croatia," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12902, The World Bank.
    7. repec:eee:rujoec:v:3:y:2017:i:4:p:411-424 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Nicola Acocella & Laura Bisio & Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Alessandra Pelloni, "undated". "Labor market imperfections, real wage rigidities and financial shocks," Working Papers 80/11, Sapienza University of Rome, Metodi e modelli per l'economia, il territorio e la finanza MEMOTEF.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfspn:2010/18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow) or (Hassan Zaidi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.