Discrimination: a question of visible minorities
According to the Trajectories and Origins survey (Trajectoires et Origines, TeO), slightly less than 14% of persons aged 18-50 living in France report experience of discrimination over the last five years, for whatever reason (sex, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, age, religion or health status). Among French people who are neither immigrants nor second generations, 10% report discrimination, versus 24% of second generations and 26% of immigrants. The reasons given are primarily ethnic origin (or nationality) and skin colour (57% and 17%), followed by sex and age. Women over 35 report less discrimination than men and young people. While being in employment protects against a sense of being discriminated against, the perception of unfair treatment increases with educational level. Highly qualified immigrants and second generations feel confronted by a "glass ceiling" that prevents access to senior positions. However, only 13% of persons reporting experience of discrimination lodged a complaint with the police, an association, a trade union or the French anti-discrimination authority (Halde).
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