Bankers' compensation: Sprint swimming in short bonus pools?
The global financial crisis of 2007–2008 has given rise to new regulatory initiatives to put restrictions on the size and the term of bankers' pay. We revisit both theoretically and empirically the question of whether these regulations are justified. We model bonuses as a series of sequential call options on profits and show that they provide higher risk-taking incentives the shorter the time is between payments. However, using data on CEO bonuses at the end of 2006 and our model, we find no robust relationship between risk-taking incentives and US banks' stock returns during the global financial crisis. The crisis returns are related negatively to leverage and positively to the market-to-book equity ratio. Our findings suggest that regulating leverage would be more effective than regulating bankers' compensation.
|Date of creation:||15 Jan 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Bank of Finland, P.O. Box 160, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland|
Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- S. G. Kou, 2002. "A Jump-Diffusion Model for Option Pricing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(8), pages 1086-1101, August.
- David Miles & Jing Yang & Gilberto Marcheggiano, 2013.
"Optimal Bank Capital,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(567), pages 1-37, 03.
- Elijah Brewer & Julapa Jagtiani, 2009.
"How much did banks pay to become too-big-to-fail and to become systemically important?,"
09-34, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Elijah Brewer & Julapa Jagtiani, 2013. "How Much Did Banks Pay to Become Too-Big-To-Fail and to Become Systemically Important?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 1-35, February.
- Elijah Brewer & Julapa Jagtiani, 2011. "How much did banks pay to become too-big-to-fail and to become systematically important?," Working Papers 11-37, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Luigi Zingales & Oliver Hart, 2009.
"A New Capital Regulation For Large Financial Institutions,"
2009.124, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Oliver Hart & Luigi Zingales, 2011. "A New Capital Regulation for Large Financial Institutions," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 453-490.
- Hart, Oliver & Zingales, Luigi, 2009. "A New Capital Regulation For Large Financial Institutions," CEPR Discussion Papers 7298, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bengt Holmstrom, 1982.
"Moral Hazard in Teams,"
Bell Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 324-340, Autumn.
- Sanford J Grossman & Oliver D Hart, 2001.
"An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
391749000000000339, David K. Levine.
- Sanford Grossman & Oliver Hart, . "An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-80, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Rogerson, William P, 1985. "The First-Order Approach to Principal-Agent Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1357-67, November.
- Matthew Richardson, 2011. "Regulating Wall Street," Proceedings 1116, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Viral V. Acharya & Philipp Schnabl & Gustavo Suarez, 2010.
"Securitization without risk transfer,"
NBER Working Papers
15730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Durré, Alain & Giot, Pierre, 2005.
"An international analysis of earnings, stock prices and bond yields,"
Working Paper Series
0515, European Central Bank.
- Alain Durré & Pierre Giot, 2007. "An International Analysis of Earnings, Stock Prices and Bond Yields," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3-4), pages 613-641.
- Alain Durré & Pierre Giot, 2005. "An international analysis of earnings, stock prices and bond yields," Working Paper Research 73, National Bank of Belgium.
- Alex Edmans & Xavier Gabaix & Tomasz Sadzik & Yuliy Sannikov, 2012. "Dynamic CEO Compensation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(5), pages 1603-1647, October.
- Coles, Jeffrey L. & Daniel, Naveen D. & Naveen, Lalitha, 2006. "Managerial incentives and risk-taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 431-468, February.
- P. Carr, 1995. "Two extensions to barrier option valuation," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(3), pages 173-209.
- Raghuram G. Rajan, 2005.
"Has financial development made the world riskier?,"
Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole,
Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Aug, pages 313-369.
- Bengt Holmstrom, 1997.
"Moral Hazard and Observability,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
1205, David K. Levine.
- Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher, 1995. "CEO compensation and bank risk Is compensation in banking structured to promote risk taking?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 405-431, November.
- Low, Angie, 2009. "Managerial risk-taking behavior and equity-based compensation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 470-490, June.
- Rüdiger Fahlenbrach & René M. Stulz, 2009.
"Bank CEO Incentives and the Credit Crisis,"
NBER Working Papers
15212, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rüdiger FAHLENBRACH & René M. STULZ, . "Bank CEO Incentives and the Credit Crisis," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 09-27, Swiss Finance Institute.
- Fahlenbach, Rudiger & Stulz, Rene M., 2009. "Bank CEO Incentives and the Credit Crisis," Working Paper Series 2009-13, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
- Reint Gropp & Christian Gruendl & Andre Guettler, 2014.
"The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk-Taking: Evidence from a Natural Experiment,"
Review of Finance,
European Finance Association, vol. 18(2), pages 457-488.
- Gropp, Reint & Gruendl, Christian & Guettler, Andre, 2010. "The impact of public guarantees on bank risk taking: evidence from a natural experiment," Working Paper Series 1272, European Central Bank.
- Gropp, R. & Grundl, C. & Guttler, A., 2010. "The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Discussion Paper 2010-69S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Merton, Robert C, 1974.
"On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-70, May.
- Merton, Robert C., 1973. "On the pricing of corporate debt: the risk structure of interest rates," Working papers 684-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- R. C. Merton, 1970.
"Optimum Consumption and Portfolio Rules in a Continuous-time Model,"
58, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Merton, Robert C., 1971. "Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous-time model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 373-413, December.
- Stavros Panageas & Mark M. Westerfield, 2009. "High-Water Marks: High Risk Appetites? Convex Compensation, Long Horizons, and Portfolio Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 1-36, 02.
- Keppo, Jussi & Kofman, Leonard & Meng, Xu, 2010. "Unintended consequences of the market risk requirement in banking regulation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2192-2214, October.
- Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1994. "The Firm as an Incentive System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 972-91, September.
- Steven N. Kaplan & Bernadette A. Minton, 2012. "How Has CEO Turnover Changed?," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 12(1), pages 57-87, 03.
- repec:oup:restud:v:75:y:2008:i:3:p:957-984 is not listed on IDEAS
- Ioannidou, Vasso P. & Penas, María Fabiana, 2010. "Deposit insurance and bank risk-taking: Evidence from internal loan ratings," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 95-115, January.
- Bengt Holmström, 1999. "Managerial Incentive Problems: A Dynamic Perspective," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(1), pages 169-182.
- Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M, 2005. "Keeping the Board in the Dark: CEO Compensation and Entrenchment," CEPR Discussion Papers 5315, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Lammertjan Dam & Michael Koetter, 2012. "Bank Bailouts and Moral Hazard: Evidence from Germany," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(8), pages 2343-2380.
- Bengt Holmstrom, 1999. "Managerial Incentive Problems: A Dynamic Perspective," NBER Working Papers 6875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Myerson, Roger B., 1982. "Optimal coordination mechanisms in generalized principal-agent problems," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 67-81, June.
- Pathan, Shams, 2009. "Strong boards, CEO power and bank risk-taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1340-1350, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:bofrdp:2014_002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Minna Nyman)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.