The cost of sin: The effect of social norms on audit pricing
In this paper we provide evidence for the effects of social norms on audit pricing by studying companies belonging to the alcohol, firearms, gambling, military, nuclear power, and tobacco industries, which are often described as “sin” companies. We hypothesize that the disparities between “sin” firms operations and prevailing social norms create an adverse context which heightens the client’s business risk assessment by auditors and is, thereby, reflected in the pricing decisions for audit and consulting services. Having controlled for the impact of variables relating to client attributes, auditor attributes and engagement attributes, we demonstrate that audit firms charge significantly higher audit and consulting fees to companies that deviate from prevailing social norms. Additionally, we show that audit pricing levels within the “sin” group depend both on prevailing political views and on the vlevel of “vice” exhibited by “sin” companies.
|Date of creation:||15 Aug 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published as Leventis, Stergios, Iftekhar Hasan and Emmanouil Dedoulis, 'The cost of sin: The effect of social norms on audit pricing' in International Review of Financial Analysis , 2013, pages 152-165.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales & Luigi Guiso, 2006.
"Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?,"
NBER Working Papers
11999, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Simon Gachter & Ernst Fehr, 2000.
"Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 980-994, September.
- Ernst Fehr & Simon Gaechter, . "Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments," IEW - Working Papers 010, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Ernst Fehr & Simon Gaechter, 1999. "Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments," CESifo Working Paper Series 183, CESifo Group Munich.
- Scott D. Dyreng & William J. Mayew & Christopher D. Williams, 2012. "Religious Social Norms and Corporate Financial Reporting," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(7-8), pages 845-875, 09.
- Earl L. Grinols & David B. Mustard, 2001. "Business profitability versus social profitability: evaluating industries with externalities, the case of casinos," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1-3), pages 143-162.
- Mark L. DeFond, 2002. "Do Non-Audit Service Fees Impair Auditor Independence? Evidence from Going Concern Audit Opinions," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 1247-1274, 09.
- Edmund Byrne, 2007. "Assessing Arms Makersâ€™ Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 74(3), pages 201-217, September.
- Earl L. Grinols, 2004. "Taxation vs. litigation," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(4), pages 179-183.
- Margaret Lindorff & Elizabeth Prior Jonson & Linda McGuire, 2012. "Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Controversial Industry Sectors: The Social Value of Harm Minimisation," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 110(4), pages 457-467, November.
- S. Brammer & Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin, 2007. "Religion and Attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility in a Large Cross-Country Sample," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 71(3), pages 229-243, March.
- El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Kwok, Chuck C.Y. & Mishra, Dev R., 2011. "Does corporate social responsibility affect the cost of capital?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2388-2406, September.
- Durand, Robert B. & Koh, SzeKee & Tan, Paul LiJian, 2013. "The price of sin in the Pacific-Basin," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 899-913.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Earl L. Grinols & David B. Mustard, 2001. "Management and information issues for industries with externalities: the case of casino gambling," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1-3), pages 1-3.
- Agnès Festré, 2010. "Incentives And Social Norms: A Motivation-Based Economic Analysis Of Social Norms," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 511-538, 07.
- Hong, Harrison & Kacperczyk, Marcin, 2009. "The price of sin: The effects of social norms on markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 15-36, July.
- Julie Salaber, 2007. "The Determinants of Sin Stock Returns: Evidence on the European Market," Working Papers halshs-00170219, HAL.
- Hilary, Gilles & Hui, Kai Wai, 2009. "Does religion matter in corporate decision making in America?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3), pages 455-473, September.
- Beneish, Messod D. & Jansen, Ivo Ph. & Lewis, Melissa F. & Stuart, Nathan V., 2008. "Diversification to mitigate expropriation in the tobacco industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 136-157, July.
- Salaber, Julie, 2007. "The Determinants of Sin Stock Returns : Evidence on the European Market," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/3028, Paris Dauphine University.
- Gachter, Simon & Fehr, Ernst, 1999. "Collective action as a social exchange," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 341-369, July.
- Hong, Harrison & Kostovetsky, Leonard, 2012. "Red and blue investing: Values and finance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 1-19.
- Francis, Jere R., 1984. "The effect of audit firm size on audit prices : A study of the Australian Market," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 133-151, August.
- Matias Braun & Borja Larrain, 2004.
"Finance and the Business Cycle: International, Inter-industry Evidence,"
- Matías Braun & Borja Larrain, 2005. "Finance and the Business Cycle: International, Inter-Industry Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1097-1128, 06.
- Vanessa M Strike & Jijun Gao & Pratima Bansal, 2006. "Being good while being bad: social responsibility and the international diversification of US firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(6), pages 850-862, November.
- Dean R. Gerstein & Rachel A. Volberg & Henrick J. Harwood & Eugene M. Christiansen, 2004. "Assessing the costs of 'addicted' gamblers," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(4), pages 201-203.
- Romer, David, 1984. "The Theory of Social Custom: A Modification and Some Extensions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 99(4), pages 717-27, November.
- Elster, Jon, 1989. "Social Norms and Economic Theory," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 99-117, Fall.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:bofrdp:2013_013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Minna Nyman)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.