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The Impact of Lease Structures on the Optimal Holding Period for a Commercial Real Estate Portfolio


  • Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme

    (Department of finance, insurance and real estate - Université Laval)

  • Michel Baroni

    (Finance Department - Essec Business School)

  • Fabrice Barthélémy

    (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - UCP - Université de Cergy Pontoise - Université Paris-Seine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Mahdi Mokrane

    (LaSalle Investment Management - LaSalle Investment Management)


Purpose The purpose of this paper is to exhibit the impacts of lease duration and lease break options on the optimal holding period for a real estate asset or portfolio Methodology / approach We use a Monte Carlo simulation framework to simulate a real estate assets cash-flows in which lease structures (rents indexation patterns overall lease duration and break options) are explicitly taken into account. We assume that a tenant exercises his/her option to break a lease if the rent paid as higher than the market rental value of similar properties. We also model vacancy duration stochastically using Poisson's law. Finally capital values and market rental values are simulated using specific stochastic processes. and are also assumed to be correlated. We derive the optimal holding period for the asset as the value that maximises its discounted value. which is the sum of the discounted free cash flows and the discounted terminal Findings We demonstrate that. consistent with existing capital markets literature and real estate business practice. break-options in leases can dramatically alter optimal holding periods for real estate assets and portfolios by extension. We show that. everything else being equal. shorter lease durations. higher market rental value volatility. increasing negative rental reversion. higher vacancy duration. more break options. all tend to decrease the optimal holding period of a real estate asset. The converse is also true. Practical implications Practitioners are insights as well as a practical methodology for determining the ex-ame optimal holding period for an asset or a portfolio based on a number of market and asset specific parameters including the lease structure. Originality / value The originality of the paper derives from taking an explicit modelling approach to lease duration and lease breaks as additional sources of asset specific risk alongside market risk. This is critical in real estate portfolio management because such specific risk is usually difficult to diversify.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme & Michel Baroni & Fabrice Barthélémy & Mahdi Mokrane, 2014. "The Impact of Lease Structures on the Optimal Holding Period for a Commercial Real Estate Portfolio," Working Papers hal-01070033, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-01070033
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michel Baroni & Fabrice Barthélémy & Mahdi Mokrane, 2007. "Optimal holding period for a real estate portfolio," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(6), pages 603-625, October.
    2. Atkins, Allen B & Dyl, Edward A, 1997. " Transactions Costs and Holding Periods for Common Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 309-325, March.
    3. Patric H. Hendershott & David C. Ling, 1984. "Prospective Changes in Tax Law and the Value of Depreciable Real Estate," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 12(3), pages 297-317, September.
    4. Miceli, Thomas J. & Sirmans, C. F., 1999. "Tenant Turnover, Rental Contracts, and Self-Selection," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 301-311, December.
    5. Mark Callender & Steven Devaney & Angela Sheahan & Tony Key, 2007. "Risk Reduction and Diversification in UK Commercial Property Portfolios," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 355-375, December.
    6. Peter J. Byrne & Stephen Lee, 2001. "Risk reduction and real estate portfolio size," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 369-379.
    7. Gau, George W & Wang, Ko, 1994. "The Tax-Induced Holding Periods of Real Estate Investors: Theory and Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 71-85, January.
    8. Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme & Fabrice Barthélémy & Michel Baroni & Etienne Dupuy, 2013. "Combining Monte Carlo simulations and options to manage the risk of real estate portfolios," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(4), pages 360-389, July.
    9. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
    10. Fabrice Barthelemy & Jean-Luc Prigent, 2011. "Real Estate Portfolio Management : Optimization under Risk Aversion," THEMA Working Papers 2011-12, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    11. repec:arz:wpaper:eres2007-155 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Fabrice Barthélémy & Jean-Luc Prigent, 2009. "Optimal Time to Sell in Real Estate Portfolio Management," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 59-87, January.
    13. Harold Demsetz, 1968. "The Cost of Transacting," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(1), pages 33-53.
    14. Seha M. Tinic, 1972. "The Economics of Liquidity Services," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 86(1), pages 79-93.
    15. David Collett & Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2003. "Timing and the Holding Periods of Institutional Real Estate," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(2), pages 205-222, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme & Fabrice Barthélémy, 2018. "Ex-ante real estate Value at Risk calculation method," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 262(2), pages 257-285, March.
    2. Amédée-Manesme, Charles-Olivier & Barthélémy, Fabrice & Prigent, Jean-Luc, 2016. "Real estate investment: Market volatility and optimal holding period under risk aversion," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 543-555.

    More about this item


    Real estate; Portfolio management; Simulation; Optimal holding period;

    JEL classification:

    • C60 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - General
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • R39 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Other

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