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Le gradient et la transmission intergénérationnelle de la santé pendant l'enfance

Author

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  • Bénédicte Apouey

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)

  • Pierre-Yves Geoffard

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)

Abstract

En dépit d'un accès aux soins universel, on observe un gradient de santé dans l'enfance en France, c'est-à-dire une association positive entre le niveau de revenu familial et l'état de santé des enfants. Cette corrélation peut s'interpréter selon deux chaînes causales qui font toutes deux appel à la santé des parents. Dans une première approche, le revenu familial améliorerait la santé des parents, qui elle-même influencerait positivement la santé des enfants. Dans une seconde approche, la santé des parents aurait un effet à la fois sur le revenu familial et la santé des enfants, créant par là-même une corrélation fallacieuse entre revenu et santé des enfants. L'effet des politiques publiques sur la santé des enfants sera différent selon les effets à l'oeuvre. Si le revenu des parents influence la santé des parents qui elle-même agit sur la santé des enfants, alors une politique qui augmente le revenu de certains ménages entraînera une amélioration de la santé des parents puis des enfants. Mais si la corrélation entre revenu et santé des enfants est fallacieuse, alors une politique de hausse de revenu ne se traduira pas par une amélioration de la santé des enfants. De plus, si la santé des parents a un effet causal sur la santé de leur progéniture, toute mesure permettant d'améliorer la santé des parents est susceptible de bénéficier également aux enfants. Cet article utilise les données de l'Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale de 1994-2008 pour étudier les relations entre le revenu familial et plusieurs aspects de la santé des enfants et des parents. Nos résultats suggèrent que le revenu a un impact sur la santé digestive et pondérale des enfants, indépendamment de l'effet de la santé des parents. Ce résultat pointe vers le rôle des conditions de vie dans les inégalités sociales de santé pendant l'enfance.

Suggested Citation

  • Bénédicte Apouey & Pierre-Yves Geoffard, 2015. "Le gradient et la transmission intergénérationnelle de la santé pendant l'enfance," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique" halshs-01107363, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:pseose:halshs-01107363
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01107363
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Apouey, Bénédicte H. & Geoffard, Pierre-Yves, 2016. "Parents’ education and child body weight in France: The trajectory of the gradient in the early years," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 70-89.

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