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Securing women's employment: a fertility booster in European countries?

Author

Listed:
  • Angela Greulich

    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Olivier Thévenon

    (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques, Social Policy Division - OCDE)

  • Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière

    (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche)

Abstract

This article gives evidence that differences in completed fertility among European countries emerge mainly as a result of fewer women having a second child in low fertility countries and analyses the impact of women's employment on the probability of second child birth. With longitudinal data from the European Survey of Income and Living conditions (EU-SILC) and aggregated data from the OECD Family Database, we find that, on average within European countries, women in stable employment have a significantly higher probability of second childbirth than inactive or unemployed women. However, while female employment generally favours a transition to second childbirth in high-fertility countries, the impact is heterogenous in low-fertility countries. This points to a work-life balance conflict that is stronger in low-fertility countries. To address this issue, multilevel models are run to compare the role of various policies: not surprisingly, they show that childcare policies – which are the most effective policies to secure women's employment – are the most likely to encourage couples to enlarge their families and that the positive effect of stable employment on fertility is reinforced by this policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Angela Greulich & Olivier Thévenon & Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière, 2016. "Securing women's employment: a fertility booster in European countries?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01306103, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-01306103
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01306103
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    1. Hippolyte d'Albis & Angela Greulich & Grégory Ponthière, 2017. "Education, labour, and the demographic consequences of birth postponement in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(23), pages 691-728.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    family enlargement; Europe; work-life balance; female employment; low fertility;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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