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Spatial Distribution of Welfare Across States and Different Socio-Economic Groups in Rural and Urban India

Author

Listed:
  • Sudip Ranjan Basu
  • Jaya Krishnakumar
  • Gabriela Flores

Abstract

In this paper we examine the incidence of poverty and inequality across different States and socio-economic groups in order to get a spatial picture of welfare distribution in India. Our welfare indicator is the money-metric measure of utility represented by the equivalent expenditure incorporating substitution effects due to price changes. The indicator was derived by estimating separate demand systems for rural and urban using NSS 55 data. This in turn allowed us to compute different poverty and inequality measures based on these equivalent expenditures and carry out our comparative analysis. We calculated these measures for the major States of India, for different religious groups, according to household type (the type of activity) and according to some social criteria like the level of education of the household head and the type of family structure, separately for both the urban and rural sectors. Results are analysed in detail bringing out interesting features, comparisons and interpretations accompanied by plausible explanations. Further it is also shown that ignoring substitution effects and simply using deflated expenditures may not only alter the estimates of poverty and inequality but also the relative performances across regions and groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Sudip Ranjan Basu & Jaya Krishnakumar & Gabriela Flores, 2004. "Spatial Distribution of Welfare Across States and Different Socio-Economic Groups in Rural and Urban India," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 2004.14, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  • Handle: RePEc:gen:geneem:2004.14
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-764, July.
    2. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    3. Bishop, John A & Chow, K Victor & Zheng, Buhong, 1995. "Statistical Inference and Decomposable Poverty Measures," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(4), pages 329-340, October.
    4. Zheng, Buhong, 1997. " Aggregate Poverty Measures," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 123-162, June.
    5. Kakwani, Nanak, 1993. "Statistical Inference in the Measurement of Poverty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 632-639, November.
    6. Lewbel, Arthur, 1990. "Full Rank Demand Systems," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(2), pages 289-300, May.
    7. Foster, James E & Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1991. "Subgroup Consistent Poverty Indices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 687-709, May.
    8. James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
    9. Blundell, Richard & Pashardes, Panos & Weber, Guglielmo, 1993. "What Do We Learn About Consumer Demand Patterns from Micro Data?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 570-597, June.
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    11. Clark, Stephen & Hemming, Richard & Ulph, David, 1981. "On Indices for the Measurement of Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(362), pages 515-526, June.
    12. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sudip Ranjan Basu, 2004. "Economic Growth, Well-Being and Governance under Economic Reforms: Evidence from Indian States," IHEID Working Papers 05-2004, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    2. Sudip Ranjan Basu, 2007. "Comparing China and India: Is dividend of economic reforms polarized?," IHEID Working Papers 01-2007, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Demand system estimation; household surveys; poverty; inequality; India.;

    JEL classification:

    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
    • D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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