IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Ten Years of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Accomplishments and Prospects

  • José Ernesto Amoros


  • Niels Bosma


  • Jonathan Levie


In its first ten years, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) has had three main aims: to measure differences in the level of entrepreneurial activity between countries, to uncover factors determining national levels of entrepreneurial activity and to identify policies that would stimulate entrepreneurship. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical contributions by the GEM consortium ten years after the presentation of its first Global Report in 1999. The evolution of GEM measures of entrepreneurship is tracked, and the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed scholarship based on GEM data and models are assessed. Prospects and recommendations for the future are noted, as GEM continues to expand and scholars outside the consortium increasingly employ GEM data in their work.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Global Entrepreneurship Research Association in its series Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series with number 1105.

in new window

Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2011
Date of revision: Aug 2011
Publication status: Forthcoming in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2013, issue 5(2)
Handle: RePEc:gem:wpaper:1105
Contact details of provider: Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. André Stel & Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2005. "The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 311-321, 02.
  2. André Stel & David Storey & A. Thurik, 2007. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-186, March.
  3. Sander Wennekers & André van Wennekers & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 293-309, 04.
  4. Zoltan Acs & Colm O’Gorman & Laszlo Szerb & Siri Terjesen, 2007. "Could the Irish Miracle be Repeated in Hungary?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 123-142, March.
  5. Markku Maula & Erkko Autio & Pia Arenius, 2005. "What Drives Micro-Angel Investments?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 459-475, December.
  6. Ruta Aidis & Saul Estrin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2007. "Institutions and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia:A Comparative Perspective," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 07-03, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
  7. Zoltan J. Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Leora Klapper, 2008. "What Does "Entrepreneurship" Data Really Show?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-007, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  8. Wim Naudé & Thomas Gries & Eric Wood & Aloe Meintjies, 2008. "Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 111-124, March.
  9. P. Köllinger & M. Minniti, 2006. "Not for Lack of Trying: American Entrepreneurship in Black and White," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 59-79, August.
  10. Zoltán Ács & Attila Varga, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 323-334, 02.
  11. Polona Tominc & Miroslav Rebernik, 2007. "Growth Aspirations and Cultural Support for Entrepreneurship: A Comparison of Post-Socialist Countries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 239-255, March.
  12. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
  13. Philipp Koellinger, 2008. "Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 21-37, June.
  14. Erkko Autio & Zoltan Acs, 2010. "Intellectual Property Protection and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations," Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series 1104, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, revised Jul 2010.
  15. Hector Rocha & Rolf Sternberg, 2005. "Entrepreneurship: The Role of Clusters Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 267-292, 02.
  16. Dirk Clercq & Jolanda Hessels & André Stel, 2008. "Knowledge spillovers and new ventures’ export orientation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 283-303, October.
  17. P.D. Koellinger & A.R. Thurik, 0000. "Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-032/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 30 Sep 2009.
  18. Paul Reynolds & Niels Bosma & Erkko Autio & Steve Hunt & Natalie De Bono & Isabel Servais & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Nancy Chin, 2005. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 205-231, 02.
  19. Stephen, Roper & Jonathan M., Scott, 2009. "Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data," MPRA Paper 23342, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Poh Wong & Yuen Ho & Erkko Autio, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 335-350, 01.
  21. Yuen-Ping Ho & Poh-Kam Wong, 2007. "Financing, Regulatory Costs and Entrepreneurial Propensity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 187-204, March.
  22. Paul Reynolds, 2009. "Screening item effects in estimating the prevalence of nascent entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 151-163, August.
  23. Zoltan Acs, 2006. "How Is Entrepreneurship Good for Economic Growth?," Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, MIT Press, vol. 1(1), pages 97-107, March.
  24. David B. Audretsch, 2007. "Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 63-78, Spring.
  25. Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Understanding Business Creation: Serendipity and Scope in Two Decades of Business Creation Studies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 359-364, 05.
  26. László Szerb & Gábor Rappai & Zsolt Makra & Siri Terjesen, 2007. "Informal Investment in Transition Economies: Individual Characteristics and Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 257-271, March.
  27. Zoltan Acs & Laszlo Szerb, 2007. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth and Public Policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 109-122, March.
  28. Kwon, Seok-Woo & Arenius, Pia, 2010. "Nations of entrepreneurs: A social capital perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 315-330, May.
  29. Minniti, Maria (ed.), 2011. "The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199580866.
  30. Jonathan Levie, 2007. "Immigration, In-Migration, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 143-169, March.
  31. José Ernesto Amorós & Óscar Cristi, 2007. "Longitudinal Analysis of Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Dynamics in Latin America," Working Paper 200706, Department of Business Economics, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.
  32. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1988. "Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 678-90, September.
  33. Hector Rocha, 2004. "Entrepreneurship and Development: The Role of Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 363-400, October.
  34. Rolf Sternberg & Sander Wennekers, 2005. "Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 193-203, 01.
  35. Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
  36. Pia Arenius & Maria Minniti, 2005. "Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 233-247, 02.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gem:wpaper:1105. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Aylett)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.