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Money, Financial Stability and Efficiency

  • Franklin Allen
  • Elena Carletti
  • Douglas Gale

Most analyses of banking crises assume that banks use real contracts. However, in practice contracts are nominal and this is what is assumed here. We consider a standard banking model with aggregate return risk, aggregate liquidity risk and idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. We show that, with non-contingent nominal deposit contracts, the first-best efficient allocation can be achieved in a decentralized banking system. What is required is that the central bank accommodates the demands of the private sector for fiat money. Variations in the price level allow full sharing of aggregate risks. An interbank market allows the sharing of idiosyncratic liquidity risk. In contrast, idiosyncratic (bank-specific) return risks cannot be shared using monetary policy alone; real transfers are needed.

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Paper provided by European University Institute in its series Economics Working Papers with number ECO2011/04.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco2011/04
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  1. Gaetano Antinolfi & Elisabeth Huybens, 2000. "Monetary Stability and Liquidity Crises: The Role of the Lender of Last Resort," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1156, Econometric Society.
  2. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2003. "Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises," NBER Working Papers 10071, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Bruce Champ & Bruce D. Smith & Stephen D. Williamson, 1996. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 828-64, November.
  4. Jin Cao & Gerhard Illing, 2011. "Endogenous Exposure to Systemic Liquidity Risk," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(2), pages 173-216, June.
  5. Xavier Freixas & Antoine Martin & David Skeie, 2010. "Bank Liquidity, Interbank Markets and Monetary Policy," Working Papers 429, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  6. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
  7. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1999. "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," NBER Working Papers 7430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Calomiris, Charles W & Kahn, Charles M, 1991. "The Role of Demandable Debt in Structuring Optimal Banking Arrangements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 497-513, June.
  9. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1998. "Optimal Financial Crises," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1245-1284, 08.
  10. Krueger, Dirk & Lustig, Hanno, 2010. "When is market incompleteness irrelevant for the price of aggregate risk (and when is it not)?," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 145(1), pages 1-41, January.
  11. David R. Skeie, 2008. "Banking with nominal deposits and inside money," Staff Reports 242, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  12. Alan S. Blinder, 1994. "On Sticky Prices: Academic Theories Meet the Real World," NBER Chapters, in: Monetary Policy, pages 117-154 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Bohn, Henning, 1988. "Why do we have nominal government debt?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 127-140, January.
  14. Jacklin, Charles J & Bhattacharya, Sudipto, 1988. "Distinguishing Panics and Information-Based Bank Runs: Welfare and Policy Implications," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(3), pages 568-92, June.
  15. Cooper, Russell & Corbae, Dean, 2002. "Financial Collapse: A Lesson from the Great Depression," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 159-190, December.
  16. Franklin Allen & Elena Carletti & Douglas Gale, 2009. "Interbank Market Liquidity and Central Bank Intervention," Economics Working Papers ECO2009/09, European University Institute.
  17. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 2009. "Comment on: "Interbank market liquidity and central bank intervention"," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 653-656, July.
  18. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2006. "Money in a Theory of Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 30-53, March.
  19. Chari, V V & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1988. " Banking Panics, Information, and Rational Expectations Equilibrium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 749-61, July.
  20. Cao, Jin & Illing, Gerhard, 2011. "Endogenous exposure to systemic liquidity risk," Munich Reprints in Economics 19998, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  21. Bruce D. Smith, 2002. "Monetary Policy, Banking Crises, and the Friedman Rule," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 128-134, May.
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