IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/dnb/wormem/756.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Dutch corporate liquidity management: new evidence on aggregation

Author

Listed:
  • W.A. Bruinshoofd
  • C.J.M. Kool

Abstract

In this paper we investigate Dutch corporate liquidity management in general, and target adjustment behaviour in particular. To this purpose, we use a simple error correction model of corporate liquidity holdings applied to firm-level data for the period 1977-1997. We confirm the existence of long-run liquidity targets at the firm level. We also find that changes in liquidity holdings are driven by shortrun shocks as well as the urge to converge towards targeted liquidity levels. The rate of target convergence is higher when we include more firm-specific information in the target. This result supports the idea that the degree of error in defining liquidity targets associates negatively with the observed rate of target convergence. It also suggests that the slow speeds of adjustment obtained in many macro studies on money demand are artefacts of aggregation bias.

Suggested Citation

  • W.A. Bruinshoofd & C.J.M. Kool, 2004. "Dutch corporate liquidity management: new evidence on aggregation," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 756, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:wormem:756
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.dnb.nl/binaries/research%20memorandum%20wo%20no%20756_tcm46-146036.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Holmstrom, Bengt & Tirole, Jean, 2000. "Liquidity and Risk Management," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 295-319, August.
    2. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
    3. Carr, Jack & Darby, Michael R., 1981. "The role of money supply shocks in the short-run demand for money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 183-199.
    4. Calomiris, Charles W. & Himmelberg, Charles P. & Wachtel, Paul, 1995. "Commercial paper, corporate finance, and the business cycle: a microeconomic perspective," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 203-250, June.
    5. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    6. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    8. W. Allard Bruinshoofd & Clemens J. M. Kool, 2004. "Dutch corporate liquidity mangement: New evidence on aggregation," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 7, pages 195-230, November.
    9. Marc R. Saidenberg & Philip E. Strahan, 1999. "Are banks still important for financing large businesses?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 5(Jul).
    10. Alan J. Auerbach, 1985. "Real Determinants of Corporate Leverage," NBER Chapters, in: Corporate Capital Structures in the United States, pages 301-324, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Dittmar, Amy & Mahrt-Smith, Jan & Servaes, Henri, 2003. "International Corporate Governance and Corporate Cash Holdings," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(1), pages 111-133, March.
    12. Stewart C. Myers & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1998. "The Paradox of Liquidity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 733-771.
    13. Harris, Richard D. F. & Tzavalis, Elias, 1999. "Inference for unit roots in dynamic panels where the time dimension is fixed," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 201-226, August.
    14. Douglas W. Diamond, 1991. "Debt Maturity Structure and Liquidity Risk," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 709-737.
    15. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    16. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1983. "An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(1), pages 7-45, January.
    17. Dittmar, Amy & Mahrt-Smith, Jan & Servaes, Henri, 2002. "Corporate Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3499, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Private and Public Supply of Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 1-40, February.
    19. R. Glenn Hubbard, 1998. "Capital-Market Imperfections and Investment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(1), pages 193-225, March.
    20. Chirinko, Robert S & Schaller, Huntley, 1995. "Why Does Liquidity Matter in Investment Equations?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 527-548, May.
    21. Opler, Tim & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 1999. "The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 3-46, April.
    22. Jonathan R. Macey & Geoffrey P. Miller, 1997. "Universal Banks Are Not The Answer To America'S Corporate Governance “Problem”: A Look At Germany, Japan, And The U.S," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(4), pages 57-73, January.
    23. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    24. Goldfeld, Stephen M. & Sichel, Daniel E., 1990. "The demand for money," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 299-356, Elsevier.
    25. repec:dgr:uvatin:20020072 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    27. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. "The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    28. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937.
    29. George R. Moore & P. A. V. B. Swamy & Peter A. Tinsley, 1982. "An autopsy of a conventional macroeconomic relation: the case of money demand," Special Studies Papers 167, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    30. de Haan, Leo & Hinloopen, Jeroen, 2003. "Preference hierarchies for internal finance, bank loans, bond, and share issues: evidence for Dutch firms," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 661-681, December.
    31. Kim, Chang-Soo & Mauer, David C. & Sherman, Ann E., 1998. "The Determinants of Corporate Liquidity: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(3), pages 335-359, September.
    32. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    34. Pinkowitz, Lee & Williamson, Rohan, 2001. "Bank Power and Cash Holdings: Evidence from Japan," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(4), pages 1059-1082.
    35. Bivin, David, 1994. "Aggregation over products and the speed of adjustment in inventory models," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 109-128.
    36. Shyam-Sunder, Lakshmi & C. Myers, Stewart, 1999. "Testing static tradeoff against pecking order models of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 219-244, February.
    37. den Butter, F. A. G. & Fase, M. M. G., 1981. "The demand for money in EEC countries," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 201-230.
    38. Seitz, Helmut, 1993. "Still More on the Speed of Adjustment in Inventory Models: A Lesson in Aggregation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 103-127.
    39. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Godfred A. Bokpin & Zangina Isshaq & Francis Aboagye-Otchere, 2011. "Ownership structure, corporate governance and corporate liquidity policy: Evidence from the Ghana Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(3), pages 262-279, August.
    2. Allard Bruinshoofd & Leo de Haan, 2005. "Financing the New Economy: Are ICT Firms Really That Different?," DNB Working Papers 077, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    3. W. Allard Bruinshoofd & Clemens Kool, 2009. "Nonlinear target adjustment in corporate liquidity management: an endogenous thresholds approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(17), pages 2125-2131.
    4. W. Allard Bruinshoofd & Clemens J. M. Kool, 2004. "Dutch corporate liquidity mangement: New evidence on aggregation," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 7, pages 195-230, November.
    5. Roberto Álvarez & Andrés Sagner & Carla Valdivia, 2012. "Liquidity Crises and Corporate Cash Holdings in Chile," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 50(4), pages 378-392, December.
    6. Bigelli, Marco & Sánchez-Vidal, Javier, 2012. "Cash holdings in private firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 26-35.
    7. W. Allard Bruinshoofd & Clemens J. M. Kool, 2004. "Dutch Corporate Liquidity Management," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 124, Netherlands Central Bank.
    8. Ravinder Kumar Arora, 2019. "Corporate Cash Holdings: An Empirical Investigation of Indian Companies," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 20(4), pages 1088-1106, August.
    9. Lalita Anand & M. Thenmozhi & Nikhil Varaiya & Saumitra Bhadhuri, 2018. "Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Cash Holdings?: A Dynamic Panel Model," Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Institute for Financial Management and Research, vol. 17(1_suppl), pages 27-53, April.
    10. Christopher F. Baum & Dorothea Schäfer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2006. "The Effects of Industry-Level Uncertainty on Cash Holdings: The Case of Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 638, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    11. Dobetz, Wolfgang & Grüninger, Matthias C., 2006. "Corporate cash holdings: Evidence from a different institutional setting," Working papers 2006/06, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    12. Natalia Nehrebecka & Anna Białek-Jaworska, 2016. "Determinanty inwestycji finansowych przedsiębiorstw w Polsce," Gospodarka Narodowa. The Polish Journal of Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 3, pages 35-55.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. W. Allard Bruinshoofd & Clemens J. M. Kool, 2004. "Dutch Corporate Liquidity Management," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 124, Netherlands Central Bank.
    2. Bruinshoofd Allard & Kool Clemens, 2002. "The Determinants of Corporate Liquidity in the Netherlands," Research Memorandum 014, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    3. Allard Bruinshoofd, 2003. "Corporate Investment and Financing Constraints: Connections with Cash management," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 110, Netherlands Central Bank.
    4. Dobetz, Wolfgang & Grüninger, Matthias C., 2006. "Corporate cash holdings: Evidence from a different institutional setting," Working papers 2006/06, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    5. Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
    6. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Michael S. Weisbach, 2002. "Corporate Demand for Liquidity," NBER Working Papers 9253, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Christopher F. Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Oleksandr Talavera, 2013. "The Effects of Future Capital Investment and R&D Expenditures on Firms' Liquidity," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 459-474, August.
    8. Acharya, Viral V. & Almeida, Heitor & Campello, Murillo, 2007. "Is cash negative debt? A hedging perspective on corporate financial policies," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 515-554, October.
    9. Paulo, Alves, 2018. "Abnormal retained earnings around the world," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 63-74.
    10. Hobdari, Bersant & Jones, Derek C. & Mygind, Niels, 2009. "Capital investment and determinants of financial constraints in Estonia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 344-359, December.
    11. Elena Smirnova & Sirousse Tabriztchi & Cary Lange, 2015. "Cash Holdings, Use of Debt and Dividend Structure of Family Firms," American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, Science Publications, vol. 7(1), pages 1-10, May.
    12. Al-Najjar, Basil, 2013. "The financial determinants of corporate cash holdings: Evidence from some emerging markets," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 77-88.
    13. Lin, Tsui-Jung & Tsai, Han-Fang & Imamah, Nur & Hung, Jung-Hua, 2016. "Does the identity of multiple large shareholders affect the value of excess cash? Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 40(PA), pages 173-190.
    14. Al-Najjar, Basil & Clark, Ephraim, 2017. "Corporate governance and cash holdings in MENA: Evidence from internal and external governance practices," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 1-12.
    15. Cristina Martínez-Sola & Pedro J. García-Teruel & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2018. "Cash holdings in SMEs: speed of adjustment, growth and financing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 823-842, December.
    16. Ghada Tayem, 2017. "To Bank or Not to Bank: The Determination of Cash Holdings and Lines of Credit," Working Papers 1130, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 2017.
    17. Davide Dottori & Giacinto Micucci, 2018. "Corporate liquidity in Italy and its increase in the long recession," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 35(3), pages 981-1014, December.
    18. Mario Tirelli, 2021. "On the optimal investment finance of small businesses," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(4), pages 1639-1665, April.
    19. Allard Bruinshoofd & Leo de Haan, 2005. "Financing the New Economy: Are ICT Firms Really That Different?," DNB Working Papers 077, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    20. Bontempi, Maria Elena & Bottazzi, Laura & Golinelli, Roberto, 2020. "A multilevel index of heterogeneous short-term and long-term debt dynamics," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate liquidity demand; Precautionary liquidity;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dnb:wormem:756. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dnbgvnl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Richard Heuver (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dnbgvnl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.