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Shortfall allowed: loss aversion and habit formation

  • Arjen Siegmann

In this paper we analyze a model of consumption and investment when preferences are loss averse around a habit level and investment yields an uncertain return. Loss aversion is the most natural way of modeling the presence of a habit as it explicitly models aversion to below-habit consumption. Existing approaches either neglect the possibility of below-habit consumption or model habit formation by dividing consumption through a habit. Confronting the traditional model using ratios with the outcome under loss aversion shows that the loss averse model yields a more natural interpretation thus appears more realistic. Starting with an analytical solution for a piecewise-linear utility function, the results are found to be robust for the more general Kahneman-Tversky formulation of the value function.

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File URL: http://www.dnb.nl/binaries/wo0741_tcm46-146027.pdf
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Paper provided by Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department in its series WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) with number 741.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dnb:wormem:741
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Web page: http://www.dnb.nl/en/

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  1. David A. Chapman, 1998. "Habit Formation and Aggregate Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1223-1230, September.
  2. Martin Browning & Thomas F. Crossley, 2000. "The Life Cycle Model of Consumption and Saving," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 28, McMaster University.
  3. John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1994. "By Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," CRSP working papers 412, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  4. Francisco Gomes & Alexander Michaelides, 2003. "Portfolio Choice With Internal Habit Formation: A Life-Cycle Model With Uninsurable Labor Income Risk," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 6(4), pages 729-766, October.
  5. Andrew B. Abel, . "Asset Prices Under Habit Formation and Catching Up With the Jones," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 1-90, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  6. Aizenman, Joshua, 1998. "Buffer stocks and precautionary savings with loss aversion," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 931-947, December.
  7. Benartzi, Shlomo & Thaler, Richard H, 1995. "Myopic Loss Aversion and the Equity Premium Puzzle," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(1), pages 73-92, February.
  8. Aylin Seckin, 2000. "Habit Formation: A Kind of Prudence?," CIRANO Working Papers 2000s-42, CIRANO.
  9. Martin Browning & Annamaria Lusardi, 1996. "Household Saving: Micro Theories and Micro Facts," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(4), pages 1797-1855, December.
  10. Thaler, Richard H, 1994. "Psychology and Savings Policies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 186-92, May.
  11. Bowman, David & Minehart, Deborah & Rabin, Matthew, 1999. "Loss aversion in a consumption-savings model," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 155-178, February.
  12. Jeffrey C. Fuhrer, 2000. "Habit Formation in Consumption and Its Implications for Monetary-Policy Models," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 367-390, June.
  13. Jerome B. Detemple & Fernando Zapatero, 1992. "Optimal Consumption-Portfolio Policies With Habit Formation," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(4), pages 251-274.
  14. David A. Chapman, 2002. "Does Intrinsic Habit Formation Actually Resolve the Equity Premium Puzzle?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(3), pages 618-645, July.
  15. G. Constantinides, 1990. "Habit formation: a resolution of the equity premium puzzle," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1397, David K. Levine.
  16. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
  17. John Y. Campbell & John Cochrane, 1999. "Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(2), pages 205-251, April.
  18. Aylin Seckin, 2000. "Consumption with Habit Formation," CIRANO Working Papers 2000s-39, CIRANO.
  19. Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, Daniel, 1992. " Advances in Prospect Theory: Cumulative Representation of Uncertainty," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 297-323, October.
  20. Detemple, Jerome B & Zapatero, Fernando, 1991. "Asset Prices in an Exchange Economy with Habit Formation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1633-57, November.
  21. Matsen, Egil, 2003. "Habit persistence and welfare gains from international asset trade," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 239-260, April.
  22. Andrew B. Abel, 1998. "Risk Premia and Term Premia in General Equilibrium," NBER Working Papers 6683, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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