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On Wage Formation, Wage Development and Unemployment Flexibility: a Comparison between European Countries and the United States

Author

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  • H.M.M. Peeters
  • A.H.J. den Reijer

Abstract

For Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the US an Error Correction Model with a long-term non-linear wage equation is estimated by 3-SLS to obtain consistent estimates, accounting for endogeneity and common shocks. On the basis of the estimated parameter elasticities of wages with respect to labour productivity, value added and consumer prices, taxes, unemployment and replacement rates are computed along with the wage contributions. The results indicate that the dominant role of prices in the formation of wages in the seventies and eighties was taken over by labour productivity in the US and unemployment in Spain and -almost- in the Netherlands at the end of the nineties. Evidence for a stronger real wage flexibility of the US in comparison with the four European countries is not found.

Suggested Citation

  • H.M.M. Peeters & A.H.J. den Reijer, 2002. "On Wage Formation, Wage Development and Unemployment Flexibility: a Comparison between European Countries and the United States," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 712, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:wormem:712
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    File URL: https://www.dnb.nl/binaries/wo0712_tcm46-146005.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. H.M.M. Peeters & A.H.J. den Reijer, 2001. "On Wage Formation, Wage Development and Unemployment," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 677, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    2. Gruner, Hans Peter & Hefeker, Carsten, 1999. " How Will EMU Affect Inflation and Unemployment in Europe?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 101(1), pages 33-47, March.
    3. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, June.
    4. Olympia Bover & Pilar GarcĂ­a-Perea & Pedro Portugal, 2000. "Labour market outliers: Lessons from Portugal and Spain," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(31), pages 379-428, October.
    5. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
    6. Bell, Brian & Nickell, Stephen & Quintini, Glenda, 2002. "Wage equations, wage curves and all that," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 341-360, July.
    7. Grubb, David B. & Jackman, Richard & Layard, Richard, 1983. "Wage rigidity and unemployment in OECD countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1-2), pages 11-39.
    8. Graafland, J.J. & Huizinga, F.H., 1998. "Taxes and benefits in a non-linear wage equation," MPRA Paper 21076, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. M. Demertzis & P.J.A. van Els & H.M.M. Peeters, 2002. "EUROMON: De Nederlandsche Bank's Multi-Country Model," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 718, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    2. Demertzis, Maria & Van Els, Peter & Grob, Sybille & Peeters, Marga, 2006. "EUROMON: The multi-country model of De Nederlandsche Bank," MPRA Paper 28512, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Kees Folmer, 2009. "Why do macro wage elasticities diverge? A meta analysis," CPB Discussion Paper 122, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    4. Kees Folmer, 2009. "Why do macro wage elasticities diverge?," CPB Memorandum 224, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    wage fexibility; labour market;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General

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