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Efficiency and Cost Differences across Countries in a Unified EuropeanBanking Market

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  • J.A. Bikker

Abstract

This paper seeks to discover the level and spread of bank efficiency in the EU, which in the light of the current and expected increase in competition in Europe is of vital importance for welfare- related public policy toward market structure and conduct. In particular, this study focuses on differences across countries, variously sized banks (reflecting distinct market segments), various banking categories and over time. Two related but diverging dimensions of efficiency are considered: X-efficiency, measuring managerial ability, and cost level differences, reflecting national economic and institutional conditions with respect to supervisory rules, government interference, customer preferences and level of development. The observed large spreads in inefficiencies and cost levels across countries and individual banks indicate that the process of scaling up and rationalisation to be prepared for increased foreign competition, has - for at least part of the banks - only just begun.

Suggested Citation

  • J.A. Bikker, 2003. "Efficiency and Cost Differences across Countries in a Unified EuropeanBanking Market," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 87, Netherlands Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:staffs:87
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. J.A. Bikker, 2001. "Efficiency and cost differences across countries in a unified European banking market," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 34, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    2. Maudos, Joaquin & Pastor, Jose M. & Perez, Francisco & Quesada, Javier, 2002. "Cost and profit efficiency in European banks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 33-58, February.
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    4. Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Measuring efficiency at U.S. banks: Accounting for heterogeneity is important," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 230-242, April.
    5. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    6. Ana Lozano-Vivas, 1998. "Efficiency and technical change for Spanish banks," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 289-300.
    7. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
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    10. Jacob A. Bikker, 2001. "Efficiency in the European banking industry: an exploratory analysis to rank contries," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 17.
    11. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    12. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor, 2001. "Cost and profit efficiency in banking: an international comparison of Europe, Japan and the USA," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(6), pages 383-387.
    13. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Operational efficiency in banking: An international comparison," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 655-672, May.
    14. Pastor, JoseManuel & Perez, Francisco & Quesada, Javier, 1997. "Efficiency analysis in banking firms: An international comparison," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 395-407, April.
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    16. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor & Lorenzo Seranno, 1999. "Economic integration, efficiency and economic growth: the European Union experience," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(6), pages 389-392.
    17. J.A. Bikker & J.M. Groeneveld, 1998. "Competition and Concentration in the EU Banking Industry," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 8, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    18. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
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    Cited by:

    1. J.A. Bikker, 2001. "Efficiency and cost differences across countries in a unified European banking market," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 34, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    2. J.A. Bikker & J. Gorter, 2008. "Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus," Working Papers 08-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
    3. Jacob A. Bikker & Jaap W.B. Bos, 2005. "Trends in Competition and Profitability in the Banking Industry: A Basic Framework," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    4. Mark Schonewille, 2004. "Qualitative Efficiency Assessment of Markets: An Institutional Approach to Training," HEW 0405006, EconWPA.
    5. Christian E. Weller & Ghazal Zulfiqar, 2013. "Financial Market Diversity and Macroeconomic Stability," Working Papers wp332, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    6. Bos, J.W.B. & Kool, C.J.M., 2006. "Bank efficiency: The role of bank strategy and local market conditions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1953-1974, July.
    7. Bank for International Settlements, 2006. "The banking system in emerging economies: how much progress has been made?," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 28.
    8. Mamatzakis, E & Koutsomanoli, A, 2009. "Risk in the EU banking industry and efficiency under quantile analysis," MPRA Paper 22492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Dániel Holló & Márton Nagy, 2006. "Bank Efficiency in the Enlarged European Union," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The banking system in emerging economies: how much progress has been made?, volume 28, pages 217-35 Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Bos, Jaap W. B. & Schmiedel, Heiko, 2006. "Is there a single frontier in a single European banking market?," Working Paper Series 701, European Central Bank.
    11. Trevor Fitzpatrick & Kieran McQuinn, 2005. "Labour Cost Efficiency in UK and Irish Credit Institutions," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 36(1), pages 45-66.
    12. Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Pastor, Jesús T., 2010. "Do performance and environmental conditions act as barriers for cross-border banking in Europe?," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 275-282, October.
    13. Fitzpatrick, Trevor & McQuinn, Kieran, 2004. "Cost Efficiency in UK and Irish Credit Institutions," Research Technical Papers 3/RT/04, Central Bank of Ireland.
    14. Mamatzakis, E & Koutsomanoli, A, 2009. "European Banking Integration under a Quadratic Loss Function," MPRA Paper 19379, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    banks; efficiency; banking category and size effects; international comparison;

    JEL classification:

    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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