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How has the euro Changed the Foreign Exchange Market?


  • H.Hau
  • W.Killeen
  • M.Moore


This paper examines the primary forex statistics for the euro in relation to the German mark prior to 1999. Contrary to widespread expectations, our evidence indicates that the euro lost ground against the US dollar in forex spot trading and in some dimensions does not even match the international transaction role of the German mark. We argue that the euro changed the forex market structure and particularly increased market transparency through currency elimination. The higher market transparency exposes the dealers to higher inventory risk as his inventory imbalances are revealed more easily to other dealers. Dealers in the euro markets recover increased inventory costs through higher spreads that make the euro a less attractive transaction medium than the German mark. We explore the policy implications for the ECB, for euro outsiders and reflect upon the future of the forex market. Copyright (c) CEPR, CES, MSH, 2002.
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  • H.Hau & W.Killeen & M.Moore, 2003. "How has the euro Changed the Foreign Exchange Market?," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 79, Netherlands Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:staffs:79

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    Cited by:

    1. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric Van Wincoop, 2006. "Can Information Heterogeneity Explain the Exchange Rate Determination Puzzle?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 552-576, June.
    2. Dunne, Peter & Hau, Harald & Moore, Michael, 2010. "International order flows: Explaining equity and exchange rate returns," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 358-386, March.
    3. Papaioannou, Elias & Portes, Richard & Siourounis, Gregorios, 2006. "Optimal currency shares in international reserves: The impact of the euro and the prospects for the dollar," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 508-547, December.
    4. Linda S. Goldberg & Cedric Tille, 2006. "The internationalization of the dollar and trade balance adjustment," Staff Reports 255, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    5. Smimou, K. & Khallouli, W., 2015. "Does the Euro affect the dynamic relation between stock market liquidity and the business cycle?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 125-153.
    6. Linda S. Goldberg & Cédric Tille, 2006. "The International Role of the Dollar and Trade Balance Adjustment," NBER Working Papers 12495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Harald Hau & Hélène Rey, 2006. "Exchange Rates, Equity Prices, and Capital Flows," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 273-317.
    8. Harald Hau & Hélène Rey, 2004. "Can Portfolio Rebalancing Explain the Dynamics of Equity Returns, Equity Flows, and Exchange Rates?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 126-133, May.
    9. Killeen, William P. & Lyons, Richard K. & Moore, Michael J., 2006. "Fixed versus flexible: Lessons from EMS order flow," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 551-579, June.
    10. Lyons, Richard K. & Moore, Michael J., 2009. "An information approach to international currencies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 211-221, November.
    11. Berger, David W. & Chaboud, Alain P. & Chernenko, Sergey V. & Howorka, Edward & Wright, Jonathan H., 2008. "Order flow and exchange rate dynamics in electronic brokerage system data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 93-109, May.
    12. Zhang, Guangfeng & Zhang, Qiong & Majeed, Muhammad Tariq, 2013. "Exchange Rate Determination and Forecasting: Can the Microstructure Approach Rescue Us from the Exchange Rate Disparity?," MPRA Paper 57673, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Harald Hau & Massimo Massa & Joel Peress, 2010. "Do Demand Curves for Currencies Slope Down? Evidence from the MSCI Global Index Change," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(4), pages 1681-1717, April.
    14. Carol L. Osler, 2006. "Macro lessons from microstructure," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 55-80.
    15. Carol Osler & Xuhang Wang, 2012. "The Microstructure of Currency Markets," Working Papers 49, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
    16. Carol Osler, 2012. "Market Microstructure and the Profitability of Currency Trading," Working Papers 48, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
    17. Martin D. D. Evans(Georgetown University and NBER) and Richard K. Lyons(U.C. Berkeley and NBER, Haas School of Business), 2005. "A New Micro Model of Exchange Rate Dynamics (March 2004)," Working Papers gueconwpa~05-05-04, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
    18. Kim, Heeho, 2011. "The risk adjusted uncovered equity parity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1491-1505.
    19. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2005. "Can Information Heterogeneity Explain the Exchange Rate Determination?," FAME Research Paper Series rp155, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
    20. Dick van Dijk & Haris Munandar & Christian Hafner, 2011. "The euro introduction and noneuro currencies," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1-2), pages 95-116.
    21. Jorge Pérez-Rodríguez, 2006. "The Euro and Other Major Currencies Floating Against the U.S. Dollar," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 34(4), pages 367-384, December.
    22. Moore, Michael J. & Payne, Richard, 2011. "On the sources of private information in FX markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1250-1262, May.
    23. McGroarty, Frank & ap Gwilym, Owain & Thomas, Stephen, 2006. "Microstructure effects, bid-ask spreads and volatility in the spot foreign exchange market pre and post-EMU," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 23-49, September.
    24. Elias Papaioannou & Richard Portes, 2008. "The international role of the euro: a status report," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 317, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    25. Geir H. Bjønnes & Carol L. Osler & Dagfinn Rime, 2009. "Asymmetric information in the interbank foreign exchange market," Working Paper 2008/25, Norges Bank.

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