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Unconventional monetary policy of the ECB during the financial crisis: An assessment and new evidence


  • Christiaan Pattipeilohy
  • Jan Willem van den End
  • Mostafa Tabbae
  • Jon Frost
  • Jakob de Haan


We first sketch how central banks have used unconventional monetary policy measures by using three indicators based on the composition of the balance sheet of eleven central banks. Our analysis suggests that although the ECB's balance sheet has increased dramatically during the crisis, the non-standard monetary policy measures had only a moderate impact on the composition of the ECB's balance sheet compared to other central banks, such as the Fed and the Bank of England. Next, we take stock of research analysing the effects of unconventional monetary policy of the ECB after the onset of the crisis. A crucial question is to what extent these measures have been able to affect interest rates, thereby restoring the monetary policy transmission process and supporting the central bank objectives. Finally, we offer new evidence on the effectiveness of the ECB's unconventional monetary policy measures, i.e. extended liquidity provision (LTRO) and the Securities Market Programme (SMP). Our results suggest that the LTRO interventions in general had a favorable (short-term) effect on government bond yields. Changes in the SMP only had a visible downward effect on bond yields in Summer 2011, when the program was reactivated for Italy and Spain, but this effect dissipated within a few weeks.

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  • Christiaan Pattipeilohy & Jan Willem van den End & Mostafa Tabbae & Jon Frost & Jakob de Haan, 2013. "Unconventional monetary policy of the ECB during the financial crisis: An assessment and new evidence," DNB Working Papers 381, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:dnbwpp:381

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. christiaan Pattipeilohy, 2016. "A comparative analysis of developments in central bank balance sheet composition," BIS Working Papers 559, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Janko Cizel & Jon Frost & Aerdt G. F. J. Houben & Peter Wierts, 2016. "Effective Macroprudential Policy; Cross-Sector Substitution from Price and Quantity Measures," IMF Working Papers 16/94, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Christophe Blot & Jérôme Creel & Paul Hubert & Fabien Labondance, 2015. "The QE experience: worth a try?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/4qb2og10r48, Sciences Po.
    4. repec:eee:riibaf:v:43:y:2018:i:c:p:79-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Jan Willem End & Christiaan Pattipeilohy, 2017. "Central Bank Balance Sheet Policies and Inflation Expectations," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 499-522, July.
    6. Christophe Blot & Jérôme Creel & Paul Hubert & Fabien Labondance, 2015. "Que peut-on attendre de l’assouplissement quantitatif de la BCE ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(2), pages 265-290.
    7. Jon Frost, 2015. "A theory of bazookas; or, "when (and when not) to use large-scale official sector support"," DNB Working Papers 479, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    8. repec:voj:journl:v:63:y:2016:i:4:p:455-473 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Babecká Kucharčuková, Oxana & Claeys, Peter & Vašíček, Bořek, 2016. "Spillover of the ECB's monetary policy outside the euro area: How different is conventional from unconventional policy?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 199-225.
    10. Ayako Saiki & Jon Frost, 2014. "How does unconventional monetary policy affect inequality? Evidence from Japan," DNB Working Papers 423, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    11. Carlos Rodriguez & Carlos A. Carrasco, 2014. "ECB Policy Responses between 2007 and 2014: a chronological analysis and a money quantity assessment of their effects," Working papers wpaper65, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    12. Krainer, Robert E., 2014. "Monetary policy and bank lending in the Euro area: Is there a stock market channel or an interest rate channel?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PB), pages 283-298.
    13. Urszula Szczerbowicz, 2015. "The ECB Unconventional Monetary Policies: Have They Lowered Market Borrowing Costs for Banks and Governments?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 11(4), pages 91-127, December.
    14. Richhild Moessner, 2015. "Effects of ECB balance sheet policy announcements on inflation expectations," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(6), pages 483-487, April.
    15. Mariarosaria Comunale & Jonas Striaukas, 2017. "Unconventional monetary policy: interest rates and low inflation: A review of literature and methods," CAMA Working Papers 2017-29, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    16. repec:eee:jimfin:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:21-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der Gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung (ed.), 2015. "Zukunftsfähigkeit in den Mittelpunkt. Jahresgutachten 2015/16," Annual Economic Reports / Jahresgutachten, German Council of Economic Experts / Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, volume 127, number 201516.
    18. repec:eee:quaeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:314-327 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Giscard ASSOUMOU ELLA & Cécile BASTIDON & Philippe GILLES, 2014. "International Prices, Monetary And Income Shocks: A Svar Model Of The External Trade Channel In African Economies," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 14, pages 85-116, December.
    20. Michał Laskowski, 2016. "Instytucjonalne uwarunkowania wspólnej polityki pieniężnej w Unii Gospodarczej i Walutowej / Institutional Framework of Single Monetary Policy in The Economic and Monetary Union," International Economics, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, issue 16, pages 313-331, December.
    21. Christiaan Pattipeilohy, 2016. "A comparative analysis of developments in central bank balance sheet composition," DNB Working Papers 510, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    22. Christiaan Pattipeilohy, 2013. "A descriptive analysis of the balance sheet and monetary policy of De Nederlandsche Bank: 1900-1998 and beyond," DNB Occasional Studies 1103, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    23. Richhild Moessner & Jakob de Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2014. "The effect of the zero lower bound, forward guidance and unconventional monetary policy on interest rate sensitivity to economic news in Sweden," DNB Working Papers 413, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    24. Hlebik Sviatlana & Verga Giovanni, 2015. "The European Central Bank Quantitative Policy and Its Consistency with the Demand for Liquidity," Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, De Gruyter Open, vol. 62(3), pages 425-451, November.
    25. Jakob de Haan & Marco Hoeberichts & Renske Maas & Federica Teppa, 2016. "Inflation in the euro area and why it matters," DNB Occasional Studies 1403, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.

    More about this item


    unconventional monetary policy; non-standard monetary policy; central bank balance sheet; European Central Bank;

    JEL classification:

    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General

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