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Credit in a Tiered Payments System

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  • Alexandra Lai
  • Nikil Chande
  • Sean O'Conner

Abstract

Payments systems are typically characterized by some degree of tiering, with upstream firms (clearing agents) providing settlement accounts to downstream institutions that wish to clear and settle payments indirectly in these systems (indirect clearers). Clearing agents provide their indirect clearers with an essential input (clearing and settlement services), while also competing directly with them in the retail market for payment services. The authors construct a model of a clearing agent with an indirect clearer to examine the clearing agent.s incentives to lever off its upstream position to gain a competitive advantage in the retail payment services market. The model demonstrates that a clearing agent can attain this competitive advantage by raising the indirect clearer.s costs, but that the incentive to raise these costs is mitigated by credit risk to the clearing agent from the provision of uncollateralized overdrafts to its indirect clearer. The results suggest that tiered payments systems, which require clearing agents to provide overdraft facilities to their indirect clearers, may result in a more competitive retail payment services market.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexandra Lai & Nikil Chande & Sean O'Conner, 2007. "Credit in a Tiered Payments System," DNB Working Papers 126, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:dnbwpp:126
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tapking, Jens & Yang, Jing, 2004. "Horizontal and vertical integration and securities trading and settlement," Working Paper Series 387, European Central Bank.
    2. Economides, Nicholas & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Competition and Integration among Complements, and Network Market Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-123, March.
    3. Holthausen, Cornelia & Tapking, Jens, 2004. "Raising rival's costs in the securities settlement industry," Working Paper Series 376, European Central Bank.
    4. Kahn, Charles M & Roberds, William, 1998. "Payment System Settlement and Bank Incentives," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 845-870.
    5. Bustos Alvaro E & Galetovic Alexander, 2009. "Vertical Integration and Sabotage with a Regulated Bottleneck Monopoly," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-52, September.
    6. Tapking, Jens & Yang, Jing, 2006. "Horizontal and Vertical Integration in Securities Trading and Settlement," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(7), pages 1765-1795, October.
    7. Holthausen, Cornelia & Tapking, Jens, 2007. "Raising rival's costs in the securities settlement industry," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 91-116, January.
    8. Economides, Nicholas, 1998. "The incentive for non-price discrimination by an input monopolist," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 271-284, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Benos, Evangelos & Ferrara, Gerardo & Gurrola-Perez, Pedro, 2017. "The impact of de-tiering in the United Kingdom’s large-value payment system," Bank of England working papers 676, Bank of England.
    2. Jonathan Chiu & Alexandra Lai, 2007. "Modelling Payments Systems: A Review of the Literature," Staff Working Papers 07-28, Bank of Canada.
    3. Robert Arculus & Jennifer Hancock & Greg Moran, 2012. "The Impact of Payment System Design on Tiering Incentives," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2012-06, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    4. James Chapman & Jonathan Chiu & Miguel Molico, 2013. "A Model of Tiered Settlement Networks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(2-3), pages 327-347, March.
    5. Adams, Mark & Galbiati, Marco & Giansante, Simone, 2010. "Liquidity costs and tiering in large-value payment systems," Bank of England working papers 399, Bank of England.
    6. Carlos A. Arango & Freddy H. Cepeda, 2016. "Non-monotonic Tradeoffs of Tiering in a Large Value Payment System," Borradores de Economia 946, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • D40 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - General
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General

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