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Cash usage in the Netherlands: How much, where, when, who and whenever one wants?

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  • Nicole Jonker
  • Anneke Kosse
  • Lola Hernández

Abstract

Having accurate information on cash usage is essential for monitoring the substitution process of cash by cards and for assessing the cost efficiency of the payment system. Moreover, estimates on cash usage reflect the transaction demand for cash. This is useful for central banks which are responsible for producing and issuing banknotes. The latest estimates of the number and value of cash payments made in the Netherlands date from 2007. How has cash usage developed since then? In what branches do consumers use cash and what type of consumers still rely heavily on cash? These questions and others are analysed using a one-day diary survey held in September 2010 in which 7,499 Dutch consumers documented their daily transactions. We find that Dutch consumers made about 5 billion cash payments in 2010. Although the majority of purchases are paid in cash, its role has steadily decreased due to increasing debit card usage. Cash is mainly used for low-value transactions, and especially the elderly and lower educated people still rely heavily on cash. Overall, the Dutch are able to pay the way they want. Only in 3% of transactions they had no choice but to use another means of payment as the one preferred.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse & Lola Hernández, 2012. "Cash usage in the Netherlands: How much, where, when, who and whenever one wants?," DNB Occasional Studies 1002, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:dnbocs:1002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Carin van der Cruijsen & Lola Hernandez & Nicole Jonker, 2017. "In love with the debit card but still married to cash," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(30), pages 2989-3004, June.
    2. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh, 2016. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 1-61, December.
    3. Lola Hernandez & Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse, 2017. "Cash versus Debit Card: The Role of Budget Control," Journal of Consumer Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 91-112, March.
    4. Carlos Arango & Yassine Bouhdaoui & David Bounie & Martina Eschelbach & Lola Hernández, 2013. "Cash Management and Payment Choices: A Simulation Model with International Comparisons," Staff Working Papers 13-53, Bank of Canada.
    5. Janet Hua Jiang & Enchuan Shao, 2014. "Understanding the Cash Demand Puzzle," Staff Working Papers 14-22, Bank of Canada.
    6. Eden Hatzvi & Jessica Meredith & Rose Kenney, 2014. "Cash Use in Australia," RBA Bulletin (Print copy discontinued), Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 43-54, June.
    7. Bouhdaoui, Y. & Bounie, D. & François, A., 2014. "Convenient prices, cash payments and price rigidity," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 329-337.
    8. David Bounie & Abel François & Leo Van Hove, 2017. "Consumer Payment Preferences, Network Externalities, and Merchant Card Acceptance: An Empirical Investigation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 51(3), pages 257-290, November.
    9. Jansen, David-Jan & Jonker, Nicole, 2018. "Fuel tourism in Dutch border regions: Are only salient price differentials relevant?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 143-153.
    10. Kosse, Anneke, 2013. "Do newspaper articles on card fraud affect debit card usage?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5382-5391.
    11. Esselink, Henk & Gijsel, Lola Hernandez-van, 2017. "The use of cash by households in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 201, European Central Bank.
    12. Kosse, Anneke & Jansen, David-Jan, 2013. "Choosing how to pay: The influence of foreign backgrounds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 989-998.
    13. Peter Mooslechner & Helmut Stix & Karin Wagner, 2012. "The Use of Payment Instruments in Austria - A Study Based on Survey Data from 1996 to 2011," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 53-77.
    14. Anneke Kosse, 2013. "The Safety of Cash and Debit Cards: A Study on the Perception and Behavior of Dutch Consumers," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(4), pages 77-98, December.
    15. Arango-Arango, Carlos A. & Bouhdaoui, Yassine & Bounie, David & Eschelbach, Martina & Hernandez, Lola, 2018. "Cash remains top-of-wallet! International evidence from payment diaries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 38-48.
    16. Beata Swiecka & Simon Grima, 2019. "Factors Affecting the Consumers’ Choice of Payment Instrument in Poland," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 179-198.
    17. Nicole Jonker, 2013. "Social costs of POS payments in the Netherlands 2002-2012: Efficiency gains from increased debit card usage," DNB Occasional Studies 1102, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    18. Griem Fabian, 2020. "Payment System Self-Regulation through Fee Caps," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 18(3), pages 141-167, September.
    19. Świecka, Beata & Terefenko, Paweł & Paprotny, Dominik, 2021. "Transaction factors’ influence on the choice of payment by Polish consumers," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).

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