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Comment évaluer la productivité et l’efficacité des hôpitaux publics et privés ? Les enjeux de la convergence tarifaire

  • Dormont, Brigitte
  • Milcent, Carine

Cet article a pour but de comprendre les différences de productivité observées en France entre les hôpitaux publics, les hôpitaux privés à but non lucratif (PSPH) et les cliniques privées. Nous examinons s'il existe une influence de la composition de la patientèle et des séjours sur la productivité des hôpitaux. Si tel est le cas, introduire de la concurrence entre les hôpitaux sur la base de la Tarification à l'Activité ne promeut pas seulement l'efficience, mais crée aussi de fortes pressions au sein des établissements en faveur d'une réorientation de l'offre de soins. La base de données utilisée est un panel d'hôpitaux proche de l'exhaustivité pour les soins aigus : 1 604 hôpitaux sont observés sur la période 1998-2003. L'analyse couvre les six années précédant l'introduction de la T2A en France afin d'observer la situation qui préexistait avant la mise en place de nouvelles incitations. Nous montrons que le diagnostic sur l'efficacité productive des hôpitaux publics dépend de la définition de la frontière de production : avec une fonction classique les scores d'efficacité des hôpitaux publics sont inférieurs à ceux des hôpitaux PSPH, eux-mêmes inférieurs à ceux des cliniques privées. Mais l'ordre des performances relatives s'inverse lorsque l'on tient compte des caractéristiques de la patientèle et la composition des séjours des hôpitaux : à l'exception des petits établissements, les hôpitaux publics et PSPH apparaissent alors plus efficaces que les cliniques privées. Ces résultats doivent être interprétés à la lumière des différences de cahiers des charges encadrant les activités des hôpitaux publics et privés. Une décomposition finale montre que la plus faible productivité des hôpitaux publics s'explique principalement par leur taille, la composition de leur patientèle et celle de leurs séjours, caractérisée par une faible proportion de séjours chirurgicaux. Elle ne s'explique pas par une moindre efficacité des hôpitaux publics.

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Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/7738.

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Date of creation: May 2013
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Publication status: Published in Economie et statistique, 2013, no. 455-456. pp. 143-173.Length: 30 pages
Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/7738
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.dauphine.fr/en/welcome.html

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