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Individual Microcredit and Social Pressure

  • Jaunaux, Laure
  • Venet, Baptiste
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    The purpose of this article is to analyse the efficiency of the repayment incentive mechanisms used for individual microcredit, the guarantor mechanism in particular. Little academic research has been devoted to this instrument whereas it is very frequently used. Churchill (1999) notably underscored the fact that, within the framework of microfinance institutions (MFI), the guarantor acts as a vector of social pressure on the borrower rather than as an alternative source of reimbursement. Little to no econometric studies have been devoted to testing this assumption. This is what we propose to do in this article, based on original data from a Brazilian microcredit programme, VivaCred, operating in the Rio de Janeiro favelas. Using a simple theoretical model, we will first of all describe the relations between an individual microcredit institution and a borrower in order to highlight the role of social sanction. Next, with an ordered multinomial logit model, we will study the probability of a change in behaviour by the borrower in terms of adherence to the repayment schedule. To be more precise, we will analyse the behaviour of borrowers with repayments significantly overdue in order to determine what encourages them to adhere to repayment deadlines in the future (economic conditions, policy of the MFI, etc.). In particular, results show that the number of guarantors has a positive impact on the likelihood of adherence to the loan repayment schedule in the future. However, it is a one-shot mechanism: the MFI cannot increase the number of guarantors required in the event of repeated delays in repayment over a period of time. On the contrary, the guarantor mechanism does not affect the likelihood of reverse transition. This mechanism thus proves efficient ex post, that is to say to encourage borrowers to adhere to the schedule in the event of repayment difficulties but has no preventive properties.

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    Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/5133.

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    Date of creation: Sep 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/5133
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    1. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    2. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
      • Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
      • Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    3. Laure Jaunaux, 2007. "Credit individuel et informalite sont-ils compatibles ? Une experience bresilienne," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 112, pages 99-131.
    4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1840, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Wydick, Bruce, 1999. "Can Social Cohesion Be Harnessed to Repair Market Failures? Evidence from Group Lending in Guatemala," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(457), pages 463-75, July.
    6. Sharma, Manohar & Zeller, Manfred, 1997. "Repayment performance in group-based credit programs in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(10), pages 1731-1742, October.
    7. Maitreesh Ghatak & Timothy W. Guinnane, 1998. "The Economics of Lending with Joint Liability: Theory and Practice," Discussion Papers 98-16, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    8. Dean Karlan & Xavier Gine, 2006. "Group versus individual liability: A field experiment in the philippines," Natural Field Experiments 00253, The Field Experiments Website.
    9. Beatriz Armendáriz de Aghion & Jonathan Morduch, 2000. "Microfinance Beyond Group Lending," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 8(2), pages 401-420, July.
    10. Godquin, Marie, 2004. "Microfinance Repayment Performance in Bangladesh: How to Improve the Allocation of Loans by MFIs," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1909-1926, November.
    11. Lorenzo Corsini & Marco Guerrazzi, 2007. "The Transition from Temporary to Permanent Employment: Evidence from Tuscany," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 21(2), pages 303-332, 06.
    12. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1995. "Group lending, repayment incentives and social collateral," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-18, February.
    13. Jaunaux, Laure, 2007. "Crédit individuel et informalité sont-ils compatibles ? Une expérience brésilienne," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/13356, Paris Dauphine University.
    14. McIntosh, Craig & Wydick, Bruce, 2005. "Competition and microfinance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 271-298, December.
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