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The Role of Money Demand in a Business Cycle Model with Staggered Wage Contracts

  • Gerke, Rafael
  • Rubart, Jens

The question of the main determinants of persistent responses due to nominal shocks captures, at least since Chari et al. (2000), a major part of the recent macroeconomic debate. However, the question whether sticky wages and/or sticky prices are sufficient for persistent reactions of key economic variables remains open. In the present model we allow for nominal rigidities due to Taylor- like wage setting as well as price adjustment costs. However, as our analysis illustrates, smoothing marginal costs seems crucial to derive a contract multiplier, wage staggering alone is not sufficient. Without considering a more specific analysis of factor market frictions, we enforce a point made by Erceg (1997) by analyzing the structure of money demand. In particular, we analyze a `standard' consumption based money demand function by varying the interest rate elasticity of money demand as well as the steady state rate of money holdings. Our results show that the persistency of the output/price dynamics can be affected crucially by the form of the implicit money demand function. In particular, it is shown that staggered wage contracts have to be accompanied by a sufficiently low interest rate elasticity, otherwise the model fails to reproduce reasonable responses of real variables.

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Paper provided by Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL) in its series Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics with number 37210.

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Date of creation: Feb 2005
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Publication status: Published in Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics . 142 (2005-02)
Handle: RePEc:dar:ddpeco:37210
Note: for complete metadata visit http://tubiblio.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/37210/
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  1. Julio J. Rotemberg, 1994. "Prices, Output and Hours: An Empirical Analysis Based on a Sticky Price Model," NBER Working Papers 4948, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. V. V. Chari & Patrick J. Kehoe & Ellen R. McGrattan, 1998. "Sticky price models of the business cycle: can the contract multiplier solve the persistence problem?," Staff Report 217, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Rochelle M. Edge, 2002. "The Equivalence of Wage and Price Staggering in Monetary Business Cycle Models," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(3), pages 559-585, July.
  4. Huang, Kevin X. D. & Liu, Zheng, 2002. "Staggered price-setting, staggered wage-setting, and business cycle persistence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 405-433, March.
  5. Rotemberg, Julio J & Woodford, Michael, 1992. "Oligopolistic Pricing and the Effects of Aggregate Demand on Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1153-1207, December.
  6. Laurence Ball & David Romer, 1987. "Real Rigidities and the Non-Neutrality of Money," NBER Working Papers 2476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 1987. "Monopolistic Competition and the Effects of Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 647-66, September.
  8. Kevin X. D. Huang & Zheng Liu & Louis Phaneuf, 2003. "Why Does the Cyclical Behavior of Real Wages Change Over Time?," Emory Economics 0309, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  9. repec:nbr:nberre:0126 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Christopher J. Erceg, 1997. "Nominal wage rigidities and the propagation of monetary disturbances," International Finance Discussion Papers 590, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1998. "Monetary Policy Shocks: What Have We Learned and to What End?," NBER Working Papers 6400, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Hairault, J.O. & Portier, F., 1992. "Money New-Keynesian Macroeconomics and the Business Cycles," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 92.32, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  13. Cooley, T.F. & Cho, J.O., 1991. "The Business Cycle with Nominal Contracts," Papers 90-07, Rochester, Business - General.
  14. Michael T. Kiley, 1997. "Staggered price setting and real rigidities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  15. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1996. "Sticky price and limited participation models of money: a comparison," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues WP-96-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  16. Bergin, Paul R. & Feenstra, Robert C., 2000. "Staggered price setting, translog preferences, and endogenous persistence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 657-680, June.
  17. Guido Ascari, 2003. "Price/Wage Staggering and Persistence: A Unifying Framework," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 511-540, 09.
  18. Jeff Fuhrer & George Moore, 1993. "Inflation persistence," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-17, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  19. Fischer, Stanley, 1979. "Capital Accumulation on the Transition Path in a Monetary Optimizing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1433-39, November.
  20. Ireland, Peter N., 1997. "A small, structural, quarterly model for monetary policy evaluation," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 83-108, December.
  21. Rotemberg, Julio J, 1982. "Sticky Prices in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1187-1211, December.
  22. Kevin X. D. Huang & Zheng Liu, 1998. "Staggered Contracts and Business Cycle Persistence," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 105, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
  23. Torben M. Andersen, 2004. "Real and Nominal PropAgation of Nominal Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 174-195, 01.
  24. Ascari, Guido & Rankin, Neil, 2002. "Staggered wages and output dynamics under disinflation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 653-680, April.
  25. Evan F. Koenig, 2000. "Is there a persistence problem? Part 2: Maybe not," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q IV, pages 11-19.
  26. Ascari, Guido, 2000. "Optimising Agents, Staggered Wages and Persistence in the Real Effects of Money Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(465), pages 664-86, July.
  27. Julio Rotemberg & Michael Woodford, 1997. "An Optimization-Based Econometric Framework for the Evaluation of Monetary Policy," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997, Volume 12, pages 297-361 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. David Romer, 1993. "The New Keynesian Synthesis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 5-22, Winter.
  29. Taylor, John B, 1980. "Aggregate Dynamics and Staggered Contracts," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(1), pages 1-23, February.
  30. Gerke, Rafael, 2001. "Nominal rigidities and the dynamic effects of a monetary shock," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 37702, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  31. Katharine G. Abraham & John C. Haltiwanger, 1995. "Real Wages and the Business Cycle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 1215-1264, September.
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