Intergenerational inequalities since baby-boom
Cohorts born until the late 1940s benefited from a clear generational progress: from one generation to the next, the conditions for entering the labour market were more favourable, living standards increased regularly, access to education and homeownership was more common. These progresses strongly slowed down and even stopped, for generations born in the 1950s and 1960s. Early in their life course, the latter had to face the two oil shocks and the bad economic context that followed. The most recent generations are experiencing a mixed picture. Several years of good economic performance at the turn of the 2000s helped to increase again their standard of living in comparison to previous generations at the same age. Then, they benefited from low interest rates that facilitated again access to the property, despite rising property prices. However, this improvement appears to be very dependent on the macroeconomic environment, which can easily turn around. Inequalities between generations go together with inequalities within generations. In particular, access to employment is closely linked to educational level. Graduate people are more protected from unemployment and get a stable job more easily, but such an improvement is at the cost of a downgrading as regards wages and employment position. Non-graduates, meanwhile, are more dependent on economic conditions, not only at the end of their studies but also during the beginning of their careers. Finally, the fragility of this generational progress, and the increased importance of intergenerational transfers of wealth, could possibly lead to a widening of the gap between social classes or social origins. For instance, since the beginning of the 2000s, the access of younger generations to property has been improving again but the gap in property rates between social categories has been increasing.
|Date of creation:||2011|
|Date of revision:|
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- Oreopoulos, Philip & Wachter, Till von & Heisz, Andrew, 2008.
"The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession: Hysteresis and Heterogeneity in the Market for College Graduates,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3578, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Philip Oreopoulos & Till von Wachter & Andrew Heisz, 2006. "The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession: Hysteresis and Heterogeneity in the Market for College Graduates," NBER Working Papers 12159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- P. Charnoz & É. Coudin & M. Gaini, 2011. "Wage inequalities in France 1976-2004: a quantile regression analysis," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2011-06, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
- M. Roger & E. Walraet, 2008. "Social Security and Well-Being of the Elderly: the Case of France," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2008-11, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
- Luc Arrondel & André Masson, 2010. "Taxer les héritages pour réduire les inégalités entre générations," Post-Print halshs-00754691, HAL.
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