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The Persistent Gender Earnings Gap in Colombia, 1994-2006

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  • Alejandro Hoyos

    ()

  • Hugo Ñopo

    ()

  • Ximena Peña

    ()

Abstract

This paper surveys gender wage gaps in Colombia from 1994 to 2006, using matchingcomparisons to examine the extent to which individuals with similar human capitalcharacteristics earn different wages. Three sub-periods are considered: 1994-1998; 2000-2001; and 2002- 2006. The gaps dropped from the first to the second period but remained almost unchanged between the second and the third. The gender wage gap remains largely unexplained after controlling for different combinations of socio-demographics and job-related characteristics, reaching between 13 and 23 percent of average female wages. That gap is lower at the middle of the wage distributions than the extremes, possibly due to a gender-equalizing effect of the minimum wage. Moreover, the gap is more pronounced for low-productivity workers and those who need flexibility to participate in labor markets. This suggests that policy interventions in the form of labor market regulations may have little impact on reducing gender wage gaps.

Suggested Citation

  • Alejandro Hoyos & Hugo Ñopo & Ximena Peña, 2010. "The Persistent Gender Earnings Gap in Colombia, 1994-2006," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 007095, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000089:007095
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alejandro Badel & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap with Sample Selection Adjustment: Evidence from Colombia," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 25(2), pages 169-191, Diciembre.
    2. Jaime Tenjo G & Rocío Ribero M. & Luisa Fernanda Bernat D., 2005. "Evolución De Las Diferencias Salariales Por Sexo En Seis Países De América Latina Un Intento De Interpretación," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002656, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    3. Diego F. Angel-Urdinola & Quentin Wodon, 2006. "The Gender Wage Gap and Poverty in Colombia," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(4), pages 721-739, December.
    4. Adriana Camacho & Emily Conover & Alejandro Hoyos, 2014. "Effects of Colombia's Social Protection System on Workers' Choice between Formal and Informal Employment," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(3), pages 446-466.
    5. Luisa Fernanda Bernat, 2009. "¿Quienes son las mujeres discriminadas?: enfoque distributivo de las diferencias salariales por género," BORRADORES DE ECONOMÍA Y FINANZAS 005242, UNIVERSIDAD ICESI.
    6. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2007. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1067-1101.
    7. De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J. & Llorens, Vanessa, 2005. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
    8. James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
    9. Wendy Cunningham, 2007. "Minimum Wages and Social Policy : Lessons from Developing Countries," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6760, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Alejandro Badel & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap with Sample Selection Adjustment: Evidence from Colombia," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 25(2), pages 169-191, Diciembre.
    2. Nancy Aireth DAZA BAEZ & Luis Fernando GAMBOA, 2013. "An approximation to the Informal-formal wage gap in Colombia 2008-2012," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 011196, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
    3. Luis Gamboa & Blanca Zuluaga, 2013. "Is There a Motherhood Penalty? Decomposing the Family Wage Gap in Colombia," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 421-434, December.
    4. Ana María Iregui B. & Ligia Alba Melo B. & María Teresa Ramírez, 2010. "Wage differentials across economic sectors in the Colombian formal labour market: evidence from a survey of firms," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007736, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    5. Juan Barón, 2012. "First job experiences of Colombian college graduates: probability of formal employment and wages," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 76, pages 55-86.
    6. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    7. Paul Carrillo & Néstor Gandelman & Virginia Robano, 2014. "Sticky floors and glass ceilings in Latin America," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 12(3), pages 339-361, September.
    8. Juan D. Barón, 2010. "Primeras experiencias laborales de los profesionales colombianos: Probabilidad de empleo formal y salarios," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL Y URBANA 007625, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
    9. Ibañez, Marcela & Rai, Ashok & Riener, Gerhard, 2015. "Sorting through affirmative action: Three field experiments in Colombia," DICE Discussion Papers 183, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    10. Juan Camilo Cárdenas & Hugo Ñopo & Jorge Luis Castañeda, 2012. "Equidad en la Diferencia: Políticas para la Movilidad Social de Grupos de Identidad. Misión de Movilidad Social y Equidad," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 010319, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    11. Cepeda Emiliani, Laura & Barón, Juan D., 2012. "Educational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap for Recent College Graduates in Colombia," IZA Discussion Papers 6361, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Juan Byron Correa Fonnegra & Carlos Augusto Viáfara López & Víctor Hugo Zuluaga González, 2011. "Desigualdad étnico-racial en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia: Un análisis a partir de Regresión Cuantílica," REVISTA SOCIEDAD Y ECONOMIA - CIDSE, UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE, February.
    13. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "Informal-formal wage gaps in Colombia," Working Papers 301, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    14. Barón, Juan David, 2012. "Primeras experiencias laborales de los profesionales colombianos: probabilidad de empleo formal y salarios," REVISTA LECTURAS DE ECONOMÍA, UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA - CIE, June.
    15. Andrea Atencio & Darwin Cortés & Juan Gallego, 2015. "Gender differences on sexual behavior and school inputs: evidence from Bogota," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 012437, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    16. Sara de la Rica & Luz Karime Abadía Alvarado, 2011. "Changes in the Gender Wage Gap and the Role of Education and Other Job Characteristics: Colombia 1994-2010," VNIVERSITAS ECONÓMICA 010088, UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA - BOGOTÁ.
    17. Isabelle Joumard & Juliana Londoño Vélez, 2013. "Income Inequality and Poverty in Colombia - Part 1. The Role of the Labour Market," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1036, OECD Publishing.
    18. Deguilhem, Thibaud & Berrou, Jean-Philippe & Combarnous, François, 2017. "Using your ties to get a worse job? The differential effects of social networks on quality of employment: Evidence from Colombia," MPRA Paper 78628, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender; ethnicity; wage gaps; Latin America; Colombia; matching;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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