IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Reviewing the Terms of Inclusion: Transactional processes, currencies and context

Listed author(s):
  • Sally Witcher
Registered author(s):

    This paper sets out an overarching theoretical framework for explaining and exploring the processes of social exclusion, incorporating themes from the literature. It proposes that inclusion hinges on participation in social relationships enacted through 'transactional processes', where currencies are assessed and goods distributed or withheld accordingly. 'Currencies' are not just financial, but also human - evidence of human or social capital - what people have, do or are. The currencies required depend on the objective of the transaction. However, even where people have currency, transaction may be prevented by inaccessible infrastructure (buildings, transport, communications, etc), or through failure to recognize currency. Both poverty (lack of capital or currencies) and discrimination (failure to enable, recognize, or act consistently upon, the presentation of currencies) need to be tackled. The components that make up social context are explored: the norms and socio-cultural objectives (economic, social, political, etc) and the transactions, currencies and goods which are consequently prioritized. Terms of inclusion may accommodate more, or less, objectives, currencies and goods, notwithstanding that some objectives will be mutually incompatible and that production of certain goods (e.g. land) cannot be increased. Objectives and norms impact on how identity is construed, or misconstrued. A typology of discrimination is described, along with its potential exclusory outcomes. Yet, changes in attitudes and priorities might reveal scope for redrafting the terms of inclusion to promote and preserve greater diversity within the mainstream.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE in its series CASE Papers with number case67.

    in new window

    Date of creation: Apr 2003
    Handle: RePEc:cep:sticas:case67
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cep:sticas:case67. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.