The Effects of Immigration on California's Labor Market
As of 2004 California employed almost 30% of all foreign born workers in the U.S. and was the state with the largest percentage of immigrants in the labor force. It also received a very large number of Mexican and uneducated immigrants during the recent decades. If immigration harms the labor opportunities of natives, especially the least skilled ones, in the form of downward wage pressure, pressure to move out of the state or increased likelihood to loose their jobs, California was the place where these effects should have been stronger. By analyzing the behavior of population, employment and wages of U.S. natives in California in the period 1960-2004 we address this issue. We consider workers of different education and age as imperfectly substitutable in production and we exploit the differences in immigration across these groups to infer their impact on US natives. Our estimates use international migration to other U.S. states as instrument for international migration to California to isolate the ?supply-driven? variation of immigrants across skills and identify the labor market responses of natives. We find that in the considered period immigration did not produce significant migratory response or loss of jobs of natives. Moreover we find that immigrants were imperfect substitutes for natives of similar education and age, hence they stimulated, rather than harmed the demand and wages of U.S. native workers.
|Date of creation:||13 Sep 2006|
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- Ethan Lewis, 2005.
"Immigration, Skill Mix, and the Choice of Technique,"
05-04, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
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- David Card & Ethan G. Lewis, 2005. "The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants During the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts," NBER Working Papers 11552, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Card & Ethan Lewis, 2005. "The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants During the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0504, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
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- David Card, 1990. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(2), pages 245-257, January.
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- Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "Rethinking The Effect Of Immigration On Wages," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 152-197, 02.
- Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2006. "Rethinking the Effects of Immigration on Wages," NBER Working Papers 12497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P. & Peri, Giovanni, 2007. "Rethinking the effects of immigration on wages," HWWI Research Papers 3-8, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
- Giovanni Peri & Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, 2006. "Rethinking the Effects of Immigration on Wages," Working Papers 634, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1335-1374. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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