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Why Use Arbitrary Points Scores: Ordered Categories in Models of Educational Progress


  • Fielding, A.


Graded educational qualifications are commonly treated using arbitrary points scores in modelling educational progress. This paper discusses some of the problems of such pratices from statistical and substantive viewpoint. Random effects models of ordered categorisations are suggested as a preferable way of handling such issues.

Suggested Citation

  • Fielding, A., 1998. "Why Use Arbitrary Points Scores: Ordered Categories in Models of Educational Progress," Discussion Papers 98-23, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  • Handle: RePEc:bir:birmec:98-23

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bikhchandani, Sushil & Hirshleifer, David & Welch, Ivo, 1992. "A Theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom, and Cultural Change in Informational Cascades," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 992-1026, October.
    2. Shiller, 021Robert J. & Pound, John, 1989. "Survey evidence on diffusion of interest and information among investors," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 47-66, August.
    3. Anderson, Lisa R & Holt, Charles A, 1997. "Information Cascades in the Laboratory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 847-862, December.
    4. Devenow, Andrea & Welch, Ivo, 1996. "Rational herding in financial economics," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 603-615, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kersting, Erasmus & Kilby, Christopher, 2014. "Aid and democracy redux," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 125-143.
    2. Corrado, L. & Fingleton, B., 2011. "Multilevel Modelling with Spatial Effects," SIRE Discussion Papers 2011-13, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    3. Ivy Liu & Alan Agresti, 2005. "The analysis of ordered categorical data: An overview and a survey of recent developments," TEST: An Official Journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research, Springer;Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa, vol. 14(1), pages 1-73, June.
    4. repec:eee:ecomod:v:212:y:2008:i:3:p:460-471 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Brown, Sarah & Taylor, Karl & Wheatley Price, Stephen, 2005. "Debt and distress: Evaluating the psychological cost of credit," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 642-663, October.
    6. Antony Fielding, 2004. "Scaling for Residual Variance Components of Ordered Category Responses in Generalised Linear Mixed Multilevel Models," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 425-433, August.

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    JEL classification:

    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection


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