Buyer power through producer's differentiation
This paper shows that a retailer may choose to differentiate his supplying producer from his rival's, at the expense of a downgrading in the quality of the product he offers to consumers, not to relax downstream competition, but to improve his buyer power in the negotiation with his producer. We consider a simple vertical industry where two producers sell products differentiated in quality to two retailers who operate in separated markets. In the game, retailers first choose which product to stock, then each retailer and her chosen producer bargain, where this pairwise bargaining happens sequentially, over the terms of a two-part tariff contract. Finally, retailers choose the quantities. We show that when upstream production costs are convex, the share of the total profits going to the retailer is higher if the latter choose to differentiate. We also are able to isolate the wish to differentiate as "only" due to increasing buyer power: namely that, via producers' differentiation, the retailer gets a larger share of smaller total profits. We show that this result also holds when retailers do not commit ex-ante on which product they stock and, in fact, we show that product differentiation to increase buyer power is even more likely in this case. We also derive the consequences of a differentiation induced by buyer power motives for consumer surplus and welfare, and extend our results for the case of downstream competition.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 207 Giannini Hall #3310, Berkeley, CA 94720-3310|
Phone: (510) 642-3345
Fax: (510) 643-8911
Web page: http://areweb.berkeley.edu/library/Main/CUDARE
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Postal: University of California, Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics Library, 248 Giannini Hall #3310, Berkeley CA 94720-3310|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kathleen Cleeren & Frank Verboven & Marnik G. Dekimpe & Katrijn Gielens, 2010.
"Intra- and Interformat Competition Among Discounters and Supermarkets,"
INFORMS, vol. 29(3), pages 456-473, 05-06.
- Cleeren, Kathleen & Dekimpe, Marnik G. & Gielens, Katrijn & Verboven, Frank, 2008. "Intra- and Inter-Format Competition Among Discounters and Supermarkets," CEPR Discussion Papers 6964, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rey, Patrick & Vergé, Thibaud, 2003.
"Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts,"
IDEI Working Papers
202, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Patrick Rey & Thibaud Vergé, 2003. "Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts," Industrial Organization 0309005, EconWPA.
- Patrick Rey & Thibaud Verge, 2002. "Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 02/048, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Fiona Scott Morton & Florian Zettelmeyer, 2004. "The Strategic Positioning of Store Brands in Retailer--Manufacturer Negotiations," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 161-194, 03.
- G. Chemla, 1999.
"Downstream competition, foreclosure, and vertical integration,"
THEMA Working Papers
99-18, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- Chemla, G., 1999. "Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration," Papers 99-18, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
- Avner Shaked & John Sutton, 1982. "Relaxing Price Competition Through Product Differentiation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(1), pages 3-13.
- João VIEIRA-MONTEZ, 2004. "Downstream Concentration and Producer's Capacity Choice," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 04.13, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Howard Smith & John Thanassoulis, 2009.
"Upstream Competition and Downstream Buyer Power,"
Economics Series Working Papers
420, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/6313 is not listed on IDEAS
- Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
- Jacques Cremer & Michael H. Riordan, 1987. "On Governing Multilateral Transactions with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 436-451, Autumn.
- Shaffer Greg, 2005. "Slotting Allowances and Optimal Product Variety," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, June.
- Joshua Gans & Catherine de Fontenay, 2004.
"Vertical Integration in the Presence of Upstream Competition,"
Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings
7, Econometric Society.
- Catherine C. de Fontenay & Joshua S. Gans, 2005. "Vertical Integration in the Presence of Upstream Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(3), pages 544-572, Autumn.
- Catherine C. de Fontenay & Joshua S. Gans, 2004. "Vertical Integration in the Presence of Upstream Competition," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 904, The University of Melbourne.
- Marx, Leslie M. & Shaffer, Greg, 2007. "Rent shifting and the order of negotiations," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1109-1125, October.
- Patrick Rey & Thibaud Vergé, 2010.
"Resale Price Maintenance And Interlocking Relationships,"
Journal of Industrial Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 928-961, December.
- Patrick REY & Thibaud VERGE, 2009. "Resale Price Maintenance and Interlocking Relationships," Working Papers 2009-11, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Claire Chambolle & Clémence Christin & Guy Meunier, 2015.
"Optimal Production Channel for Private Labels: Too Much or Too Little Innovation?,"
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 348-368, 06.
- Claire Chambolle & Clémence Christin & Guy Meunier, 2014. "Optimal production channel for private labels: Too much or too little innovation?," Working Papers 2014-02, Alimentation et Sciences Sociales.
- Claire Chambolle & Clémence Christin & Guy Meunier, 2015. "Optimal Production Channel for Private Labels: Too Much or Too Little Innovation?," Post-Print halshs-01242601, HAL.
- Claire Chambolle & Clémence Christin & Guy Meunier, 2013. "Optimal production channel for private labels: Too much or too little innovation?," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201314, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
- Tasneem Chipty & Christopher M. Snyder, 1999. "The Role Of Firm Size In Bilateral Bargaining: A Study Of The Cable Television Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 326-340, May.
- João V. Montez, 2007. "Downstream mergers and producer's capacity choice: why bake a larger pie when getting a smaller slice?," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(4), pages 948-966, December.
- McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-30, March.
- Gilles Chemla, 2003. "Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 261-289, 06.
- Mussa, Michael & Rosen, Sherwin, 1978. "Monopoly and product quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 301-317, August.
- Lars A. Stole & Jeffrey Zwiebel, 1996. "Intra-firm Bargaining under Non-binding Contracts," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(3), pages 375-410.
- Inderst, Roman & Shaffer, Greg, 2004.
"Retail Mergers: Buyer Power and Product Variety,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4236, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Zhiqi Chen, 2004. "Monopoly and Product Diversity: The Role of Retailer Countervailing Power," Carleton Economic Papers 04-19, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
- Avenel, E. & Caprice, S., 2006. "Upstream market power and product line differentiation in retailing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 319-334, March.
- Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979. "Price competition, quality and income disparities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 340-359, June.
- Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
- Hart, O. & Tirole, J., 1990. "Vertical Integration And Market Foreclosure," Working papers 548, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Inderst, Roman & Jakubovic, Zlata & Jovanovic, Dragan, 2015. "Buyer Power and Functional Competition for Innovation," MPRA Paper 61214, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mills, David E, 1995. "Why Retailers Sell Private Labels," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 509-28, Fall.
- Leslie M. Marx & Greg Shaffer, 2010. "Slotting Allowances and Scarce Shelf Space," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 575-603, 09.
- Ken Binmore & Ariel Rubinstein & Asher Wolinsky, 1986. "The Nash Bargaining Solution in Economic Modelling," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(2), pages 176-188, Summer.
- Sergio Meza & K. Sudhir, 2010. "Do private labels increase retailer bargaining power?," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 333-363, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:are:cudare:1042. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jeff Cole)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.