IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns


  • Seale, James
  • Regmi, Anita
  • Bernstein, Jason


The analysis presented here suggests that low-, middle-, and high-income countries all respond differently to changes in income and food prices and, furthermore that low-income countries are more responsive than high-income countries to such changes. These conclusions are based on a two-stage, cross-country demand system fit to the 1996 International Comparison Project (ICP) data for nine broad categories and eight food sub-categories of goods across 114 countries. The broad consumption groups include: food, beverage, and tobacco; clothing and footwear; education; gross rent, fuel, and power; house furnishings and operations; medical care; recreation; transport and communications; and other items. The food sub-groups include bread and cereals, meat, fish, dairy products, oils and fats, fruit and vegetables, beverages and tobacco, and other food products. The country data exhibit group heteroskedasticity, and a maximum likelihood procedure that corrects for group heteroskedasticity is developed and used to estimate the model. Theil's information inaccuracy measures are calculated to measure the goodness of fit of the system of equations, while Strobel measures are calculated to measure the goodness of fit on an individual equation basis. Using the estimated parameters, income and price elasticities are calculated
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Seale, James & Regmi, Anita & Bernstein, Jason, 2003. "International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns," Technical Bulletins 184321, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:uerstb:184321

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Seale, James Jr. & Theil, Henri, 1986. "Working's model for food in the four phases of the international comparison project," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 103-104.
    2. Andrew C. Harvey, 1990. "The Econometric Analysis of Time Series, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 026208189x, March.
    3. Timmer, C Peter, 1981. "Is There "Curvature" in the Slutsky Matrix?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(3), pages 395-402, August.
    4. Barten, A. P., 1969. "Maximum likelihood estimation of a complete system of demand equations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 7-73.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:uerstb:184321. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.