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La Zone Méditerranéenne Face à la Pollution de L’air : Une Investigation Econométrique

  • Sebri, Maamar

La dépollution de la Méditerranée constitue l’un des principaux chapitres portés par la coopération entre les deux rives nord et sud dans le cadre de l’Union Pour la Méditerranée (UPM). L’objectif de ce papier est d’examiner la relation existante entre l’évolution des émissions du dioxyde carbone (CO2) et la croissance économique dans les pays membres de l’UPM. Cette relation est décrite par la Courbe Environnementale de Kuznets (CEK) qui postule une relation en U inversé entre la dégradation de l’environnement et la croissance économique. Le choix de la spécification économétrique et le problème des variables omises figurent parmi les controverses révélées autour de la CEK. Dans un premier temps, ce papier vise à sélectionner un modèle parmi trois proposés. Dans un second temps, il examine l’effet de la densité de la population et du commerce international sur l’évolution des émissions de CO2. Trois résultats principaux sont attribués par ce travail. D’abord, les niveaux d’émissions de CO2 sont encore en augmentation dans le cas des pays MEDA alors qu’ils sont dans la phase de réduction dans le cas des pays UE. Ensuite, la forme de la CEK ainsi que la valeur du point de retournement dépendent du choix de la forme fonctionnelle. Enfin, la création d’une zone de libre-échange entre les deux rives méditerranéennes ne semble pas affecter la qualité de l’environnement.

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Paper provided by Agecon Search in its series Miscellaneous Papers with number 112751.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ags:miscpa:112751
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