FDI and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria
Most countries strive to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) because of its acknowledged advantages as a tool of economic development. Africa – and Nigeria in particular – joined the rest of the world in seeking FDI as evidenced by the formation of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which has the attraction of foreign investment to Africa as a major component. This study investigated the empirical relationship between non-extractive FDI and economic growth in Nigeria and examined the determinants of FDI into the Nigerian economy. Secondary data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria, International Monetary Fund and the Federal Office of Statistics. The period of analysis was 1970–2002. An augmented growth model was estimated via the ordinary least squares and the 2SLS method to ascertain the relationship between the FDI, its components and economic growth. Results suggest that the determinants of FDI in Nigeria are market size, infrastructure development and stable macroeconomic policy. Openness to trade and available human capital, however, are not FDI inducing. FDI in Nigeria contributes positively to economic growth. Although the overall effect of FDI on economic growth may not be significant, the components of FDI do have a positive impact. The FDI in the communication sector has the highest potential to grow the economy and is in multiples of that of the oil sector. The manufacturing sector FDI negatively affects the economy, reflecting the poor business environment in the country. The level of available human capital is low and there is need for more emphasis on training to enhance its potential to contribute to economic growth.
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