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From Privilege to Competition : Unlocking Private-Led Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

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  • World Bank

Abstract

The report starts with an introductory chapter that sets the stage for the issues and provides a short historical background on the development of the private sector in Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drawing on anecdotes and stories heard from many entrepreneurs and public officials consulted throughout the region during the preparation of this report. The core of the analysis is then presented in three parts. Part one assesses the performance of private sector development in the region from a macroeconomic and microeconomic standpoint (chapter two). It then presents the framework that is used to explain the identified performance gap (chapter three) and uses this framework in (chapter four) to claim that the lack of private sector dynamism in MENA is not necessarily due to insufficient reforms, but rather to the discretionary way in which rules and policies are implemented, and the lack of credibility of governments to really level the playing field when applying their policies and reforms. Part two then illustrates how this issue of poor implementation of the policies translates in three key policy areas in the business environment of the region: access to finance (chapter five), access to land (chapter six), and the conduct of industrial policies (chapter seven). The aim is to show how the role of the state and its institutions, when diverted from their regulatory and administrative missions by special interests and when subject to discretionary influence, can distort policies that may otherwise be well designed and well intended. Part three analyzes the political economy of reforms in MENA (chapter eight) and uses this analysis to offer a set of strategic recommendations and concrete policy actions that take into account the region's diversity and political economy (chapter nine).

Suggested Citation

  • World Bank, 2009. "From Privilege to Competition : Unlocking Private-Led Growth in the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13524.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:13524
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    File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/13524/51833.pdf?sequence=1
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hertel, Thomas, 1997. "Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and applications," GTAP Books, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, number 7685.
    2. Mitchell,Donald O. & Ingco,Merlinda D. & Duncan,Ronald C., 1997. "The World Food Outlook," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521589840, November.
    3. Karl Meilke & Mitch Wensley & Merritt Cluff, 2001. "The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the International Oilseed Complex," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 2-17.
    4. Sherman Robinson & Andrea Cattaneo & Moataz El-Said, 2001. "Updating and Estimating a Social Accounting Matrix Using Cross Entropy Methods," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 47-64.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Marc Schiffbauer & Abdoulaye Sy & Sahar Hussain & Hania Sahnoun & Philip Keefer, 2015. "Jobs or Privileges : Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 20591.
    2. Mohamed Ali Marouani & Rim Mouelhi, 2014. "Employment Growth, Productivity and Jobs reallocations in Tunisia: A Microdata Analysis," Working Papers DT/2014/13, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    3. Rougier, Eric, 2016. "“Fire in Cairo”: Authoritarian–Redistributive Social Contracts, Structural Change, and the Arab Spring," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 148-171.
    4. Diego Angel-Urdinola & Amina Semlali, 2010. "Labor Markets and School-to-Work Transition in Egypt : Diagnostics, Constraints, and Policy Framework," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13050, The World Bank.
    5. Mohammed Said Saadi, 2016. "Moroccan Cronyism: Facts, Mechanisms and Impact," Working Papers 1063, Economic Research Forum, revised 11 2016.
    6. World Bank, 2012. "From Political to Economic Awakening in the Arab World : The Path of Economic Integration - Deauville Partnership Report on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment, Volume 1. Overview Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11886, The World Bank.
    7. Mohamed Ali Marouani & Rim Mouelhi, 2016. "Contribution of Structural Change to Productivity Growth: Evidence from Tunisia," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), pages 110-132.
    8. Dalila NICET-CHENAF & Eric ROUGIER, 2014. "What is so specific with Middle-East and North-African pattern of growth and structural change? A quantitative comparative analysis," Cahiers du GREThA 2014-23, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    9. Ayadi, Rym & De Groen, Willem Pieter, 2014. "Micro-, Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises with High-Growth Potential in the Southern Mediterranean: Identifying Obstacles and Policy Responses," CEPS Papers 8796, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    10. Jean-Pierre Chauffour & Bernard M., 2013. "Harnessing Trade Opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa," RSCAS Working Papers PP2013/07, European University Institute.
    11. World Bank, 2014. "The Unfinished Revolution : Bringing Opportunity, Good Jobs and Greater Wealth to All Tunisians
      [La Révolution Inachevée : Créer des opportunités, des emplois de qualité et de la richesse pour tous
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 20267, The World Bank.
    12. Ishac Diwan & Marc Schiffbauer, 2016. "Private Banking and Crony Capitalism in Egypt," Working Papers 1073, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 2016.
    13. World Bank, 2016. "Public Employment and Governance in Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25181, The World Bank.
    14. Matthew Groh & David McKenzie & Nour Shammout & Tara Vishwanath, 2015. "Testing the importance of search frictions and matching through a randomized experiment in Jordan," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), pages 1-20.
    15. Ishac Diwan & Philip Keefer & Marc Schiffbauer, 2016. "Pyramid Capitalism: Cronyism, Regulation, and Firm Productivity in Egypt," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 7873, Inter-American Development Bank.
    16. Brockmeyer, Anne & Khatrouch, Maha & Raballand, Gael, 2015. "Public sector size and performance management : a case-study of post-revolution Tunisia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7159, The World Bank.
    17. Richard M. Auty, 2014. "The resource curse and sustainable development," Chapters,in: Handbook of Sustainable Development, chapter 17, pages 267-278 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Ishac Diwan & Philip Keefer & Marc Schiffbauer, 2015. "Pyramid Capitalism: Cronyism, Regulation, and Firm Productivity in Egypt," CID Working Papers 291, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    19. repec:wbk:wbpubs:12550 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. World Bank, 2013. "Opening Doors : Gender Equality and Development in the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 12552.
    21. Mélise Jaud & Caroline Freund, 2015. "Champions Wanted," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 21638.
    22. Chekir Hamouda & Diwan Ishac, 2014. "Crony Capitalism in Egypt," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, pages 177-211.
    23. Herrala, Risto & Turk-Ariss, Rima, 2016. "Capital accumulation in a politically unstable region," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-15.
    24. World Bank, 2012. "From Political to Economic Awakening : The Path of Economic Integration - Deauville Partnership Report on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment, Volume 2. Main Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11887, The World Bank.
    25. Geginat, Carolin & Saltane, Valentina, 2016. "“Open for Business?” —Transparent government and business regulation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, pages 1-21.

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