IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this book

Employment in Poland 2008. Work over the life course


  • Maciej Bukowski


  • Maciej Bukowski
  • Piotr Lewandowski
  • Irena Kotowska
  • Anna Baranowska
  • Izabela Grabowska
  • Karol Pogorzelski
  • Tymon Sloczynski
  • Pawel Strzelecki
  • Anna Matysiak
  • Horacy Debowski
  • Maciej Lis


In this edition we address the issue of work across the lifespan which, in the face of the ongoing demographic changes and population ageing, is a key problem for the future of Poland and Europe. We discuss the impact of demographic changes on the labour market and examine what policy adjustments are required in order to counter the negative effects of population ageing on the economy and to ensure the stability of the age structure in Poland in the long term. Part I discusses the macroeconomic aspects of demographic changes in Poland, also in the light of the past and future reforms of the pension system. Long-term projections (up to 2060) of labour market indicators and basic macroeconomic variables are the core element of this Part. The forecasts demonstrate the various possible institutional responses to problems caused by population ageing in the fi elds of labour market policy, social policy and immigration policy. They also provide a macroeconomic background to the remaining parts of the report. In Part II we focus on the marginal age groups of labour market participants, i.e. youth below 24 and the elderly above 54. Their situation is analysed against the age group consisting of prime-aged individuals. We analyse their relative wages, labour market indicators as well as present the results of an experiment investigating the scale of age and gender discrimination in the Polish labour market. It can be observed that the improvement of the labour market position of young people in Poland is accompanied by the relatively worse situation of the elderly, which can be partly explained by discriminatory behaviours of employers. The recognition of the obstacles that the analysed age groups encounter in the labour market is crucial for shaping public policies geared at increasing their labour market participation. Part III adopts a comparative approach to present the labour market positions of men and women. The analysis of mutual relations between institutions, cultural background, labour market situation of women and demographic developments is an important element of Part III. It is also in this section that we discuss a mix of public policies which will best counteract gender discrimination in the labour market, improve male and female participation and raise the fertility rate. Part IV is less concerned with demography, focusing instead on individual choices related to education and enhancing one’s skills across a lifespan. We argue that despite high educational attainment at tertiary level, Poles’ involvement in lifelong learning is very limited. This is likely to form an obstacle to the quick absorption of technological progress and impede adaptation to the increasing expectations of employers. At the same time, low lifelong learning participation in Poland can be largely blamed on public policies, which are sufficient in scope but improperly shaped. Employment in Poland 2008 concludes with recommendations presenting a coherent vision of a public policy which would adequately respond to demographic challenges and labour market problems looming on the horizon.

Suggested Citation

  • Maciej Bukowski & Piotr Lewandowski & Irena Kotowska & Anna Baranowska & Izabela Grabowska & Karol Pogorzelski & Tymon Sloczynski & Pawel Strzelecki & Anna Matysiak & Horacy Debowski & Maciej Lis, 2010. "Employment in Poland 2008. Work over the life course," Books and Reports published by IBS, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych, number zwp2008 edited by Maciej Bukowski, january.
  • Handle: RePEc:ibt:bookkk:zwp2008

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: English Version
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    File Function: Polish Version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tomáš Sobotka, 2004. "Is Lowest‐Low Fertility in Europe Explained by the Postponement of Childbearing?," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 195-220, June.
    2. Doris Weichselbaumer, 2004. "Is It Sex or Personality? The Impact of Sex Stereotypes on Discrimination in Applicant Selection," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 159-186, Spring.
    3. Lisa Powell, 1998. "Part-time versus full-time work and child care costs: evidence for married mothers," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 503-511.
    4. Zabalza, Antoni & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1985. "The Effect of Britain's Anti-discriminatory Legislation on Relative Pay and Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(379), pages 679-699, September.
    5. David C. Ribar, 1992. "Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women: Reduced Form Evidence," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 134-165.
    6. Sakiko Tanaka, 2005. "Parental leave and child health across OECD countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(501), pages 7-28, February.
    7. Riach Peter A & Rich Judith, 2006. "An Experimental Investigation of Sexual Discrimination in Hiring in the English Labor Market," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(2), pages 1-22, January.
    8. Riach, Peter A & Rich, Judith, 1987. "Testing for Sexual Discrimination in the Labour Market," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(49), pages 165-178, December.
    9. Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Evidence of Unequal Treatment in Hiring against Obese Applicants: A Field Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 2775, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Yoshio Higuchi & Jane Waldfogel & Masahiro Abe, 1999. "Family leave policies and women's retention after childbirth: Evidence from the United States, Britain, and Japan," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 12(4), pages 523-545.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Wojciech Hardy & Roma Keister & Piotr Lewandowski, 2016. "Do entrants take it all? The evolution of task content of jobs in Poland," Ekonomia journal, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, vol. 47.
    2. Piotr Lewandowski & Iga Magda & Jan Baran & Olena Fedyuk & Attila Bartha, 2013. "Gender Dimensions of the Labour Markets over the Past Two Decades," IBS Working Papers 1/2013, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.

    More about this item


    employment; Poland; ageing;

    JEL classification:

    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ibt:bookkk:zwp2008. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (IBS). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.