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De l'euphorie à la panique : penser la crise financière

  • Orlean, André

Cet opuscule ne cherche pas à raconter la crise. Il cherche à la comprendre. Trois questions sont abordées : Pourquoi des crises financières ? Pourquoi celle-ci ? Pourquoi une telle ampleur ? Pour y répondre, un fil directeur unique : les marchés financiers sont, par nature, instables. Ils ne savent pas s'autocorriger comme le font les marchés de biens ordinaires. Lorsque les prix d'actifs s'écartent de l'équilibre, aucune force de rappel ne vient faire obstacle à leur dérive. Tout au contraire, la concurrence financière pousse au mimétisme, à la hausse comme à la baisse. À partir de cette hypothèse, il devient possible de comprendre la mécanique de l'emballement euphorique comme celle de la panique et du krach. Cette réflexion a pour originalité de placer au cœur de l'analyse la logique des prix elle-même et non pas, comme il est fait le plus souvent, la titrisation et son opacité. Le débat n'est pas seulement académique. Dans un cas, la régulation souhaitée maintient les marchés financiers au centre de son dispositif puisqu'elle considère que ce ne sont pas eux qui sont à l'origine des défaillances mais leur environnement institutionnel. En conséquence, c'est celui-ci qu'il faut réguler. Dans l'autre cas, la régulation vise à revenir sur la primauté accordée à la finance de marché. Il s'ensuit deux conceptions tout à fait distinctes de l'architecture financière à construire.

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This book is provided by CEPREMAP in its series Opuscules du CEPREMAP with number 16 and published in 2009.
ISBN: 978-2-7288-0423-0
Handle: RePEc:cpm:opuscl:16
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  1. Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010. "Liquidity and leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
  2. Jonathan McCarthy & Richard W. Peach, 2005. "Is There a 'Bubble' in the Housing Market Now?," NFI Policy Briefs 2005-PB-01, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
  3. Adam B. Ashcraft & Til Schuermann, 2008. "Understanding the securitization of subprime mortgage credit," Staff Reports 318, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  4. Richard Herring & Susan Wachter, . "Bubbles in Real Estate Markets," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 402, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
  5. Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2010. "Liquidity, Bank Runs, and Bailouts: Spillover Effects During the Northern Rock Episode," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 83-98, June.
  6. Allen, Franklin & Carletti, Elena, 2008. "The role of liquidity in financial crises," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 379-412.
  7. Luci Ellis, 2010. "The Housing Meltdown: Why Did It Happen in the United States?," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 13(3), pages 351-394.
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