IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Empirical Psychology Between Wholesale Price And Consumer Price Indices: The Case Of Pakistan


    (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan)



    (Department of Economics and Finance, Tennessee State University, USA)


    (Research Department, State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan)

In a small open economy, the retail sector adds value with a lag to existing production and uses existing domestic production as an input. Therefore, demand side dynamics depend on the wholesale prices of the domestic goods, the prices of the imported goods, the nominal exchange rate, the level of indirect taxes, the marginal cost of retail production and interest rates. Hence, this mechanism provides a theoretical basis for causality from wholesale prices to consumer prices. Being motivated by this causal transmission mechanism, this paper tries to examine the causal relationship between wholesale prices and consumer prices in a small developing economy like Pakistan. Empirical methodology uses recently developed tests for the existence of a long-run relationship between wholesale prices and consumer prices. Typically, in applied analysis, testing for the existence of cointegration and causality can only be carried out once the time series properties of the data have been established. For example, tests for cointegration require the variables to be integrated to the same order, typically I(1), prior to estimation. By eliminating the need for unit root pre-testing, the tests applied here considerably simplify the inference procedure. They also reduce the potential for distortions in the inference due to the unknown properties of the testing sequence. Our findings include robust evidence that, for Pakistan, there is a bidirectional causality between wholesale prices and consumer prices. Feedback impact shows that influences from the wholesale price index (WPI) to the consumers' price index (CPI) is stronger or dominating as compared to feedback from CPI to WPI supporting the Cushing-McGarvey (1990) hypothesis.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. in its journal The Singapore Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 55 (2010)
Issue (Month): 03 ()
Pages: 537-551

in new window

Handle: RePEc:wsi:serxxx:v:55:y:2010:i:03:p:537-551
Contact details of provider: Web page:

Order Information: Email:

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wsi:serxxx:v:55:y:2010:i:03:p:537-551. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Tai Tone Lim)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.