Willingness to Pay for Adverse Drug Event Regulatory Actions
Background: Regulatory requirements for the pharmaceutical industry have become increasingly demanding with respect to the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the willingness to pay (WTP), of both the Dutch general public and dialysis patients, for regulatory requirements related to reducing the risk of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) associated with epoetin alpha use. Methods: A survey was carried out in April 2009. The Dutch general public (n - 422) was approached through a survey sampling agency. Patients (n - 112) were included through several Dutch dialysis clinics because they are often treated with epoetin alpha and therefore were expected to have a higher WTP than the general public. The survey aimed to determine the WTP for reducing the risk of PRCA in epoetin alpha users from 4.5 to 0 per 10 000 patients per year, based on regulatory actions that have been taken by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). WTP was determined via a payment scale and an open-ended follow-up question. Patients were asked how much extra per year they would be willing to pay for their basic healthcare insurance. We used two censored regression models to test the association between WTP and a set of independent variables: a Tobit model with the stated WTP as the dependent variable and an interval regression model with the interval between the lower and upper bounds of the payment scale as the dependent variable. Results: The patients' mean WTP was significantly higher (&U20AC;46.52) than that of the general public (&U20AC;24.40). The Tobit model showed significant associations (α - 0.05) with WTP for dialysis patients, risk perception and respondents' opinions on costs of healthcare. The interval regression model showed significant associations with WTP for the same variables as the Tobit model and for one additional variable (risk aversion). Income did not significantly affect WTP. A scenario with a 10-fold larger risk reduction did not increase WTP significantly. Conclusion: This study is, as far as we know, one of the first attempts to analyse the WTP for drug regulation and should in future be used in studies of the societal costs of drug regulation for epoetin alpha use. Our results indicate that the Dutch general public, especially Dutch dialysis patients, are willing to pay limited amounts to reduce the risk of serious adverse events associated with drug use.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wkh:phecon:v:29:y:2011:i:11:p:963-975. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dave Dustin)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.