Content-Analysis Research: An Examination of Applications with Directives for Improving Research Reliability and Objectivity
This article provides an empirical review and synthesis of published studies that have used content-analysis methods. Harold Kassarjian's critical guidelines for content-analysis research were used to examine the methods employed in 128 studies. The guidelines were expanded by providing an empirical investigation of multiple dimensions of objectivity. Reliability issues were also assessed by examining factors central to the replication and interjudge coefficient calculations. The findings indicate a general need for improvement in the application of content-analysis methods. Suggestions for calculating reliability coefficients and for improving the objectivity and reliability of research are offered. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
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