IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/rncrxx/v12y2020i3p276-292.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Governance and the capital flight trap in Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Simplice A. Asongu
  • Joseph Nnanna

Abstract

The study examines the use of governance tools to fight capital flight by reducing the capital flight trap. Two overarching policy syndromes are addressed in the study. It first assesses whether governance is an effective deterrent to the capital flight trap in Africa, before examining what thresholds of government quality are required to fight the capital flight trap in the continent. The following findings are established. Evidence of a capital flight trap is apparent because past values of capital flight have a positive effect on future values of capital flight. The net effects from interactions of the capital flight trap with political stability, regulation quality, economic governance and corruption-control on capital flight are positive. The critical masses at which ‘voice and accountability’ and regulation quality can complement the capital flight trap to reduce capital flight are respectively, 0.120 and 0.680, which correspond to the best performing countries. Policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Governance and the capital flight trap in Africa," Transnational Corporations Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 276-292, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:rncrxx:v:12:y:2020:i:3:p:276-292
    DOI: 10.1080/19186444.2020.1771123
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/19186444.2020.1771123
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1080/19186444.2020.1771123?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Challenges of Doing Business in Africa: A Systematic Review," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 259-268, April.
    3. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2020. "Education, lifelong learning, inequality and financial access: evidence from African countries," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 7-25, January.
    4. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Finance and Democracy in Africa," Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies), Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, vol. 6(3), pages 92-116, October.
    5. K. Bello Ajide & Ibrahim Dolapo Raheem, 2016. "The Institutional Quality Impact on Remittances in the ECOWAS Sub†Region," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(4), pages 462-481, December.
    6. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The persistence of global terrorism," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/053, African Governance and Development Institute..
    8. Boateng, Agyenim & Asongu, Simplice & Akamavi, Raphael & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Information asymmetry and market power in the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 69-83.
    9. Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Erreygers, Guido & Cassimon, Danny, 2019. "Inequality, ICT and financial access in Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 169-184.
    10. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    11. Leonce Ndikumana & James Boyce, 2011. "Capital flight from sub-Saharan Africa: linkages with external borrowing and policy options," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 149-170.
    12. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    13. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Foreign aid and governance in Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 69-88, January.
    15. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Amankwah-Amoah, 2016. "Military expenditure, terrorism and capital flight: Insights from Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 16/018, African Governance and Development Institute..
    16. Greenaway-McGrevy, Ryan & Han, Chirok & Sul, Donggyu, 2012. "Asymptotic distribution of factor augmented estimators for panel regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 169(1), pages 48-53.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 11(1), pages 93-122, June.
    18. Uchenna Efobi & Simplice Asongu, 2016. "Terrorism and capital flight from Africa," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 148, pages 81-94.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Governance, capital flight and industrialisation in Africa," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 8(1), pages 1-22, December.
    20. Asongu, Simplice A., 2017. "Assessing marginal, threshold, and net effects of financial globalisation on financial development in Africa," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 103-114.
    21. Simplice Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2016. "Fighting African conflicts and crimes: which governance tools matter?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 43(5), pages 466-485, May.
    22. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2017. "The Role of Knowledge Economy in African Business," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1189-1228, December.
    23. Stephen Oluwatobi & Uchenna Efobi & Isaiah Olurinola & Philip Alege, 2015. "Innovation in Africa: Why Institutions Matter," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(3), pages 390-410, September.
    24. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    25. Stephen Taiwo Onifade & Savaş Çevik & Savaş Erdoğan & Simplice Asongu & Festus Victor Bekun, 2020. "An empirical retrospect of the impacts of government expenditures on economic growth: new evidence from the Nigerian economy," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-13, December.
    26. David Kelsey & Sara Le Roux, 2017. "Dragon Slaying with Ambiguity: Theory and Experiments," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 19(1), pages 178-197, February.
    27. Simplice A Asongu & Lieven De Moor, 2017. "Financial Globalisation Dynamic Thresholds for Financial Development: Evidence from Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 192-212, January.
    28. André Moulemvo, 2016. "Impact of Capital Flight on Public Social Expenditure in Congo†Brazzaville," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S1), pages 113-123, April.
    29. Gang Kou & Yanqun Lu & Yi Peng & Yong Shi, 2012. "Evaluation Of Classification Algorithms Using Mcdm And Rank Correlation," International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making (IJITDM), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 11(01), pages 197-225.
    30. Thierry Kangoye, 2013. "Does aid unpredictability weaken governance? Evidence from developing countries," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 51(2), pages 121-144, June.
    31. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "One Bad Turn Deserves Another: How Terrorism Sustains the Addiction to Capital Flight in Africa," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 501-535, September.
    32. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    33. Babajide Fowowe, 2014. "Law and Finance Revisited: Evidence from African Countries," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(2), pages 193-208, June.
    34. Ndikumana, Leonce & Boyce, James K., 2003. "Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 107-130, January.
    35. Léonce Ndikumana & Mare Sarr, 2016. "Capital flight and foreign direct investment in Africa: An investigation of the role of natural resource endowment," WIDER Working Paper Series 058, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    36. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    37. Westerlund, Joakim & Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 2013. "On the implementation and use of factor-augmented regressions in panel data," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 3-11.
    38. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Revolution empirics: predicting the Arab Spring," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 439-482, September.
    39. Simplice A. Asongu, 2012. "Law and Finance in Africa," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 55(4), pages 385-408.
    40. Jacob Wanjala Musila & Simon Pierre Sigué, 2010. "Corruption and International Trade: An Empirical Investigation of African Countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(1), pages 129-146, January.
    41. Léonce Ndikumana & Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2008. "Corruption and Growth: Exploring the Investment Channel," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2008-08, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
    42. Colin McKenzie & Michael McAleer, 1997. "On Efficient Estimation and Correct Inference in Models with Generated Regressors: a General Approach," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 48(4), pages 368-389, December.
    43. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2016. "Law, Politics and the Quality of Government in Africa," MPRA Paper 74231, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    44. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    45. David Kelsey & Sara le Roux, 2018. "Strategic ambiguity and decision-making: an experimental study," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 84(3), pages 387-404, May.
    46. Léonce Ndikumana & Mare Sarr, 2016. "Capital flight and foreign direct investment in Africa: An investigation of the role of natural resource endowment," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2016-58, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    47. Thierry Kangoye, 2013. "Does aid unpredictability weaken governance? Evidence from developing countries," Post-Print halshs-00843756, HAL.
    48. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "ICT, information asymmetry and market power in African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 518-531.
    49. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Fighting Capital Flight in Africa: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 305-323, September.
    50. Venessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Effects of asymmetric information on market timing in the mutual fund industry," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(5), pages 542-557, October.
    51. Henry Kaiser, 1974. "An index of factorial simplicity," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 39(1), pages 31-36, March.
    52. Jushan Bai, 2003. "Inferential Theory for Factor Models of Large Dimensions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 135-171, January.
    53. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2006. "Confidence Intervals for Diffusion Index Forecasts and Inference for Factor-Augmented Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 1133-1150, July.
    54. J. K. Boyce & L. Ndikumana, 2001. "Is Africa a Net Creditor? New Estimates of Capital Flight from Severely Indebted Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1970-96," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 27-56.
    55. Olivier Tiarinisaina Ramiandrisoa & Eric Jean Michel Rakotomanana, 2016. "Why Is There Capital Flight from Developing Countries? The Case of Madagascar," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S1), pages 22-38, April.
    56. Thierry Kangoye, 2013. "Does aid unpredictability weaken governance? Evidence from developing countries," Post-Print halshs-00843755, HAL.
    57. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, July.
    58. Zhang, Huanhuan & Kou, Gang & Peng, Yi, 2019. "Soft consensus cost models for group decision making and economic interpretations," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 277(3), pages 964-980.
    59. Antonio Andrés & Simplice Asongu, 2013. "Fighting Software Piracy: Which Governance Tools Matter in Africa?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(3), pages 667-682, December.
    60. John Weeks, 2012. "Macroeconomic Impact of Capital Flows in Sub-Saharan Countries, 1980-2008," Working Papers wp290, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    61. Asongu Simplice, 2013. "Fighting African capital flight: timelines for the adoption of common policies," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 13/008, African Governance and Development Institute..
    62. Muazu Ibrahim & Paul Alagidede, 2017. "Financial Development, Growth Volatility and Information Asymmetry in Sub†Saharan Africa: Does Law Matter?," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 85(4), pages 570-588, December.
    63. Azmat Gani, 2011. "Governance and Growth in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 19-40.
    64. Leonce Ndikumana & James Boyce, 1998. "Congo's Odious Debt: External Borrowing and Capital Flight in Zaire," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 29(2), pages 195-217, April.
    65. Davies, Victor A. B., 2007. "Capital flight and war," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4210, The World Bank.
    66. Jean†Marie Gankou & Marius Bendoma & Moussé Ndoye Sow, 2016. "The Institutional Environment and the Link between Capital Flows and Capital Flight in Cameroon," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S1), pages 65-87, April.
    67. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler & Catherine Pattillo, 2004. "Africa's Exodus: Capital Flight and the Brain Drain as Portfolio Decisions," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 13(02), pages 15-54, December.
    68. Philip Keefer, 2007. "Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies," American Journal of Political Science, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 51(4), pages 804-821, October.
    69. Marko Kwaramba & Nyasha Mahonye & Leonard Mandishara, 2016. "Capital Flight and Trade Misinvoicing in Zimbabwe," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S1), pages 50-64, April.
    70. Jushan Bai, 2009. "Panel Data Models With Interactive Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(4), pages 1229-1279, July.
    71. Westerlund, Joakim & Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 2013. "On the estimation and inference in factor-augmented panel regressions with correlated loadings," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(3), pages 247-250.
    72. Ameth Saloum Ndiaye & Alain Siri, 2016. "Capital Flight from Burkina Faso: Drivers and Impact on Tax Revenue," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S1), pages 100-112, April.
    73. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    74. Stock J.H. & Watson M.W., 2002. "Forecasting Using Principal Components From a Large Number of Predictors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 1167-1179, December.
    75. Oxley, Les & McAleer, Michael, 1993. "Econometric Issues in Macroeconomic Models with Generated Regressors," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 1-40.
    76. Pagan, Adrian, 1984. "Econometric Issues in the Analysis of Regressions with Generated Regressors," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 25(1), pages 221-247, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Rexon T. Nting, 2021. "A bad turn deserves another: linkages between terrorism, capital flight and industrialisation," Working Papers 21/011, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    2. Lionel Effiom & Emmanuel Uche & Otei Asuquo Otei, 2021. "Asymmetric effects of capital flight on domestic investment in Nigeria: evidence from non-linear autoregressive distributed lag model," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(10), pages 1-23, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Governance, capital flight and industrialisation in Africa," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 8(1), pages 1-22, December.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Fighting Capital Flight in Africa: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 305-323, September.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "One Bad Turn Deserves Another: How Terrorism Sustains the Addiction to Capital Flight in Africa," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 501-535, September.
    4. Asongu, Simplice & le Roux, Sara & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Pyke, Chris, 2018. "The Mobile Phone as an Argument for Good Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 89364, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Foreign aid, instability and governance in Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/022, African Governance and Development Institute..
    6. Asongu, Simplice A. & Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2018. "Mitigating capital flight through military expenditure: Insight from 37 African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 38-53.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2019. "Foreign aid volatility and lifelong learning," Working Papers 19/086, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    8. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Amankwah-Amoah, 2016. "Military expenditure, terrorism and capital flight: Insights from Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 16/018, African Governance and Development Institute..
    9. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou & Ndemaze Asongu & Nina Tchamyou, 2019. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: evidence from bundling and unbundling institutions," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 56(3), pages 883-933, March.
    10. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Uchenna R. Efobi & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2016. "Globalization and Governance: A Critical Contribution to the Empirics," Research Africa Network Working Papers 16/017, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    12. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "FDI in Selected Developing Countries: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," Working Papers 19/057, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    13. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2020. "Fighting African capital flight: trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2019. "The role of openness in the effect of ICT on governance," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 503-531, July.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Thales P. Yapatake Kossele & Joseph Nnanna, 2021. "Not all that glitters is gold: political stability and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 21/005, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2021. "Globalization, Governance and the Green Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policy Thresholds," Working Papers 21/015, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2020. "The comparative African regional economics of globalization in financial allocation efficiency: the pre-crisis era revisited," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-41, December.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Rexon T. Nting, 2021. "A bad turn deserves another: linkages between terrorism, capital flight and industrialisation," Working Papers 21/011, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    19. Efobi, Uchenna & Asongu, Simplice & Okafor, Chinelo & Tchamyou, Vanessa & Tanankem, Belmondo, 2019. "Remittances, finance and industrialisation in Africa," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 54-66.
    20. Asongu, Simplice & Nting, Rexon & Nnanna, Joseph, 2019. "Linkages between Globalisation, Carbon dioxide emissions and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 101534, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • P37 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Legal

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:rncrxx:v:12:y:2020:i:3:p:276-292. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/rncr .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/rncr .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.