Women Out, Children Out: The Effect of Female Labor on Portuguese Preschool Enrollment Rates
This paper tests whether Portuguese female employment rates have increased preschool enrollment rates. Particularly during the past 20 years, Portuguese women have assumed new roles in the marketplace and have become active workers outside of the home environment. This change has encouraged more sensible decisions with respect to preschool enrollment. Using cointegration techniques, the author finds that increases in female employment rates and real income per capita caused a long-term increase in preschool enrollment rates. Although the percentage of agricultural gross value added to the gross domestic product and the number of preschool institutes were also found to be significant in the estimated vector error correction model, their causal relationship with preschool enrollment was only short term.
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Volume (Year): 49 (2013)
Issue (Month): S1 (January)
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