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Women Out, Children Out: The Effect of Female Labor on Portuguese Preschool Enrollment Rates

Listed author(s):
  • Paulo Reis Mourao

This paper tests whether Portuguese female employment rates have increased preschool enrollment rates. Particularly during the past 20 years, Portuguese women have assumed new roles in the marketplace and have become active workers outside of the home environment. This change has encouraged more sensible decisions with respect to preschool enrollment. Using cointegration techniques, the author finds that increases in female employment rates and real income per capita caused a long-term increase in preschool enrollment rates. Although the percentage of agricultural gross value added to the gross domestic product and the number of preschool institutes were also found to be significant in the estimated vector error correction model, their causal relationship with preschool enrollment was only short term.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.2753/REE1540-496X4901S104
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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Emerging Markets Finance and Trade.

Volume (Year): 49 (2013)
Issue (Month): S1 (January)
Pages: 49-62

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Handle: RePEc:taf:emfitr:v:49:y:2013:i:s1:p:49-62
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  1. Frank Ellis & H Ade Freeman, 2004. "Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction Strategies in Four African Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(4), pages 1-30.
  2. Berlinski, Samuel & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007. "The effect of a large expansion of pre-primary school facilities on preschool attendance and maternal employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 665-680, June.
  3. Krolzig, Hans-Martin & Hendry, David F., 2001. "Computer automation of general-to-specific model selection procedures," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(6-7), pages 831-866, June.
  4. Cécile Détang-Dessendre & Florence Goffette-Nagot & Virginie Piguet, 2008. "Life Cycle And Migration To Urban And Rural Areas: Estimation Of A Mixed Logit Model On French Data," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(4), pages 789-824.
  5. Cécile Détang-Dessendre & Florence Goffette-Nagot & Virginie Piguet, 2004. "Life-cycle position and migration to urban and rural areas: estimations of a mixed logit model on French data," Post-Print halshs-00180128, HAL.
  6. World Bank, 2009. "World Development Indicators 2009," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4367, December.
  7. Nuray Karaca & Fatma Kocabaş, 2011. "The Position of Women in Social and Economic Life: A Comparison between the EU and Turkey," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 1(1), pages 66-94, June.
  8. A. Chevalier & T. K. Viitanen, 2002. "The causality between female labour force participation and the availability of childcare," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(14), pages 915-918.
  9. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
  10. Connelly, Rachel, 1992. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on Married Women's Labor Force Participation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 83-90, February.
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