IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/soinre/v126y2016i3d10.1007_s11205-015-0937-2.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in South Africa: Applying the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

Author

Listed:
  • Michael Rogan

    () (Rhodes University)

Abstract

Abstract Recent work has shown that the gender gap in income poverty has widened in post-apartheid South Africa even though overall poverty levels have declined. One of the main criticisms of money-metric studies of gendered poverty differences is that income is only one dimension of poverty and that other measures of welfare may better reflect the relative well-being of women and female-headed households. This article presents a multidimensional approach to measuring the gender poverty gap in post-apartheid South Africa. Using data from the 2008 wave of the South African National Income Dynamic Study, the internationally comparable multidimensional poverty index (the MPI) is used to estimate gender differences in a number of different achievements. The findings suggest that the multidimensional gender poverty gap is similar to the poverty gap measured by the conventional money-metric approach at several national poverty lines. However, the MPI poverty differential between female- and male-headed households is slightly narrower than the income poverty gap between these two household types. In order to explore these findings further, the paper decomposes the components of multidimensional poverty by gender and for both female- and male-headed households. The paper concludes by considering how greater investments in health care delivery and in basic services, particularly in rural areas, may yield progress towards gender equality.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Rogan, 2016. "Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in South Africa: Applying the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 126(3), pages 987-1006, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:126:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-015-0937-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s11205-015-0937-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11205-015-0937-2
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
    2. Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, 1999. "What Does Feminization of Poverty Mean? It Isn't Just Lack of Income," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2), pages 99-103.
    3. Findlay, Jeanette & Wright, Robert E, 1996. "Gender, Poverty and the Intra-household Distribution of Resources," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(3), pages 335-351, September.
    4. John Ele-Ojo Ataguba & Hyacinth Eme Ichoku & William M. Fonta, 2013. "Multidimensional poverty assessment: applying the capability approach," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 331-354, April.
    5. Sabina Alkire, 2007. "The Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data: Introduction to the Special Issue," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 347-359.
    6. Yélé Batana, 2013. "Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 337-362, June.
    7. Josefa S Francisco, 2007. "Gender Inequality, Poverty and Human Development in South East Asia," Development, Palgrave Macmillan;Society for International Deveopment, vol. 50(2), pages 103-114, June.
    8. Taryn Dinkelman, 2011. "The Effects of Rural Electrification on Employment: New Evidence from South Africa," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(7), pages 3078-3108, December.
    9. Akoété Ega Agbodji & Yélé Maweki Batana & Dénis Ouedraogo, 2015. "Gender inequality in multidimensional welfare deprivation in West Africa: The case of Burkina Faso and Togo," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(11), pages 980-1004, November.
    10. Daniela Casale & Dorrit Posel, 2002. "The Continued Feminisation Of The Labour Force In South Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 70(1), pages 156-184, March.
    11. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011. "Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 476-487, August.
    12. Sabina Alkire & James Foster, 2011. "Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(2), pages 289-314, June.
    13. Dorrit Posel & Michael Rogan, 2012. "Gendered trends in poverty in the post-apartheid period, 1997--2006," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 97-113, March.
    14. Klasen, Stephan, 2000. "Measuring Poverty and Deprivation in South Africa," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(1), pages 33-58, March.
    15. François Bourguignon & Satya Chakravarty, 2003. "The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 1(1), pages 25-49, April.
    16. Michael Rogan, 2013. "Alternative Definitions of Headship and the 'Feminisation' of Income Poverty in Post-Apartheid South Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(10), pages 1344-1357, October.
    17. Carmen Diana Deere & Cheryl Doss, 2006. "The Gender Asset Gap: What Do We Know And Why Does It Matter?," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1-2), pages 1-50.
    18. Dorrit Posel, 2001. "Who are the heads of household, what do they do, and is the concept of headship useful? An analysis of headship in South Africa," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(5), pages 651-670.
    19. Stephan Klasen, 2004. "Gender-Related Indicators of Well-Being," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 102, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    20. Dorrit Posel & Daniela Casale, 2011. "Relative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perceptions, Expectations and Income Mobility," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 104(2), pages 195-223, November.
    21. Carmen Diana Deere & Gina E. Alvarado & Jennifer Twyman, 2012. "Gender Inequality in Asset Ownership in Latin America: Female Owners vs Household Heads," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 43(2), pages 505-530, March.
    22. Ingrid Robeyns, 2003. "Sen'S Capability Approach And Gender Inequality: Selecting Relevant Capabilities," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2-3), pages 61-92.
    23. Bastos, Amélia & Casaca, Sara F. & Nunes, Francisco & Pereirinha, José, 2009. "Women and poverty: A gender-sensitive approach," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 764-778, October.
    24. Michael Rogan, 2013. "Poverty and Headship in Post-apartheid South Africa, 1997–2006," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 113(1), pages 491-511, August.
    25. Fabrizio Botti & Marcella Corsi & Carlo D'Ippoliti, 2012. "The gendered nature of multidimensional poverty in the European Union," Working Papers CEB 12-026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    26. Michael Rogan, 2012. "Poverty and headship in post-apartheid South Africa, 1997-2008," Working Papers 288, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    27. Dorrit Posel & Daniela Casale, 2011. "Relative standing and subjective well-being in South Africa: The role of perceptions, expectations and income mobility," Working Papers 210, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    28. Albelda, Randy, 1999. "Women and poverty: Beyond earnings and welfare," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 723-742.
    29. Justine Burns & Malcolm Keswell & Murray Leibbrandt, 2005. "Social Assistance, Gender, And The Aged In South Africa," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 103-115.
    30. Sabina Alkire, 2007. "The Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data: An Introduction," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp000, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    31. Arden Finn & Murray Leibbrandt & Ingrid Woolard, 2013. "What happened to multidimensional poverty in South Africa between 1993 and 2010?," SALDRU Working Papers 099, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
    32. A. Atkinson, 2003. "Multidimensional Deprivation: Contrasting Social Welfare and Counting Approaches," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 1(1), pages 51-65, April.
    33. Vijaya, Ramya M. & Lahoti, Rahul & Swaminathan, Hema, 2014. "Moving from the Household to the Individual: Multidimensional Poverty Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 70-81.
    34. Haroon Bhorat & Carlene van der Westhuizen & Pranushka Naidoo, 2006. "Shifts in Non-Income Welfare in South Africa: 1993-2004," Working Papers 06108, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
    35. Amartya Sen, 2000. "A Decade of Human Development," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 17-23.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ankita Mishra & Ranjan Ray & Leonora Risse, 2016. "The Multidimensional Disadvantage of Australian Children with a Comparison between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Children," Monash Economics Working Papers 19-16, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    2. Espinoza-Delgado, Jose & Klasen, Stephan, 2017. "Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua, An Individual-based Approach," MPRA Paper 81907, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Igei, Kengo, 2017. "Untangling Disability and Poverty: A Matching Approach Using Large-scale Data in South Africa," Working Papers 142, JICA Research Institute.
    4. Espinoza-Delgado, José & López-Laborda, Julio, 2016. "Las tres Is de la pobreza multidimensional en Nicaragua y el diferencial de género en los primeros quince años del siglo XXI, a partir de un enfoque centrado en la persona
      [The three I’s of multidi
      ," MPRA Paper 74997, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:126:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-015-0937-2. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.