Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes
Teen mothers in the United States are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies. Substantial evidence indicates that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques, including fixed effects and a matching estimator, to identify the impact of smoking on babies of teen and nonteen mothers. Both ordinary least squares and matching estimators yield large impacts of smoking on birth weight for teens and adults. However, to the extent that unobservables are fixed over time, they can be controlled using fixed effects. These estimates indicate that the impact of smoking on birth weight is diminished, and there are small differences in the impact of smoking on birth weight between teens and nonteens.
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Volume (Year): 75 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 (January)
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- William N. Evans & Jeanne S. Ringel, 1997.
"Can Higher Cigarette Taxes Improve Birth Outcomes?,"
NBER Working Papers
5998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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- Guido W. Imbens, 2004.
"Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review,"
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MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
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- Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2002. "Simple and Bias-Corrected Matching Estimators for Average Treatment Effects," NBER Technical Working Papers 0283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jason Abrevaya, 2006. "Estimating the effect of smoking on birth outcomes using a matched panel data approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 489-519.
- Douglas Almond & Kenneth Y. Chay & David S. Lee, 2005. "The Costs of Low Birth Weight," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(3), pages 1031-1083.
- Abrevaya, Jason & Dahl, Christian M, 2008. "The Effects of Birth Inputs on Birthweight," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 379-397.
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