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Instability of Equilibria in Experimental Markets: Upward-Sloping Demands, Externalities, and Fad-Like Incentives

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  • Charles R. Plott
  • Jared Smith

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to study markets in which the value of the activity to any one person increases with the level with which the activity is undertaken by others. The general interpretation could be fads, mimicking behavior, or some sort of belief formation process in which the beliefs or expectations of agents about some underlying state of nature are influenced by the buying behavior of other agents. The result is to create a market that can be modeled as having an upward-sloping market demand curve. The questions posed are (i) in the fad-like environment, does the classical concept of equilibrium (as an equating of market demand and market supply) accurately predict market behavior; (ii) can both stable and unstable equilibria be observed; and (iii) which of the two classical concepts of stability best describes the conditions under which instability is observed? Under the conditions of a fad-like demand side externality in a market organized by the multiple unit double auction (MUDA), market equilibration occurs at a point where demand equals supply. The disequilibrium behavior follows the dynamics of the Marshallian model of dynamics, as opposed to the Walrasian model. These results confirm and extend the major findings of Plott and George who studied a similar environment with a downward-sloping supply.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles R. Plott & Jared Smith, 1999. "Instability of Equilibria in Experimental Markets: Upward-Sloping Demands, Externalities, and Fad-Like Incentives," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 405-426, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:sej:ancoec:v:65:3:y:1999:p:405-426
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    Cited by:

    1. Sean Crockett, 2013. "Price Dynamics In General Equilibrium Experiments," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 421-438, July.
    2. Noussair, Charles & Plott, Charles & Riezman, Raymond, 2007. "Production, trade, prices, exchange rates and equilibration in large experimental economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 49-76, January.
    3. Noussair, C.N. & Plott, C. & Riezman, R., 2007. "Production, trade and exchange rates in large experimental economies," Other publications TiSEM 3bf683fe-0650-4e8a-8682-c, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Tung Liu & Gary Santoni & Courtenay Cliff Stone, 2005. "Federal Securities Regulations and Stock Market Returns," Working Papers 200501, Ball State University, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2005.
    5. K.Vela Velupillai, 2012. "The Epistemology of Simulation, Computation and Dynamics in Economics," ASSRU Discussion Papers 1218, ASSRU - Algorithmic Social Science Research Unit.
    6. Honda, Jun, 2015. "Games with the Total Bandwagon Property," Department of Economics Working Paper Series 4582, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    7. Juergen Jung & Chung Tran, 2016. "Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 20, pages 132-159, April.
    8. Ortmann, Andreas, 2003. "Charles R. Plott's collected papers on the experimental foundations of economic and political science," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, pages 555-575.
    9. Henk Folmer & Auke Leen, 2013. "Why do successful restaurants not raise their prices?," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, pages 81-90.
    10. Anderson, Christopher M. & Plott, Charles R. & Shimomura, K.-I.Ken-Ichi & Granat, Sander, 2004. "Global instability in experimental general equilibrium: the Scarf example," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, pages 209-249.
    11. Sean Crockett & Ryan Oprea & Charles Plott, 2011. "Extreme Walrasian Dynamics: The Gale Example in the Lab," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 3196-3220.
    12. David Yeung, 2002. "Consumption externalities and upward-sloping demand," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, pages 196-200.
    13. Micha Gisser & James E. McClure & Giray Okten & Gary Santoni, 2009. "Some Anomalies Arising from Bandwagons that Impart Upward Sloping Segments to Market Demand," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, pages 21-34.
    14. Paul Brewer & Maria Huang & Brad Nelson & Charles Plott, 2002. "On the Behavioral Foundations of the Law of Supply and Demand: Human Convergence and Robot Randomness," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 5(3), pages 179-208, December.
    15. repec:kap:iaecre:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:196-200 is not listed on IDEAS

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