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Institutional developments in the Dutch waste-collection market


  • Elbert Dijkgraaf
  • Raymond H J M Gradus


We analyse the Dutch waste-collection market for 1998 – 2005. We show that municipalities with unit-based pricing (UBP) or waste collection by private companies have lower costs. However, this cost advantage decreases over time as competition decreases, because of the introduction of the VAT-compensation fund, and because of contamination of waste streams. The cost advantage of private provision is shown to be much larger in the first years, while a longer duration of private production results in lower efficiency. An important conclusion from this study is that UBP, although its effectiveness deteriorates over time, is more effective in reducing cost than is contracting out. Moreover, we show that the effect of contracting out might have been overestimated in the previous literature because there is a correlation between the use of contracting out and UBP. Low incentive UBP systems, based on volume or frequency, are only effective when the municipality does not collect the waste itself.

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  • Elbert Dijkgraaf & Raymond H J M Gradus, 2008. "Institutional developments in the Dutch waste-collection market," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 26(1), pages 110-126, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envirc:v:26:y:2008:i:1:p:110-126

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bel Germà & Fageda Xavier & E. Mildred, 2014. "Is private production of public services cheaper than public production? A meta-regression analysis of solid waste and water services," Public administration issues, Higher School of Economics, issue 3, pages 103-140.
    2. Nuno Ferreira da Cruz & Pedro Simões & Rui Cunha Marques, 2013. "The hurdles of local governments with PPP contracts in the waste sector," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 31(2), pages 292-307, April.
    3. E. Dijkgraaf & R. Gradus, 2011. "Efficiency Effects of Privatising Refuse Collection: Be careful and Alternatives present," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-156/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    4. Amir HEFETZ & Mildred E. WARNER, 2010. "Dynamics of service provision: service, market and place characteristics," Departmental Working Papers 2010-33, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    5. Xavier Fageda & Germa Bel, 2008. "Choosing hybrid organizations for local servicesdelivery: An empirical analysis of partial privatization," IREA Working Papers 200803, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Apr 2008.
    6. Elbert Dijkgraaf & Raymond Gradus, 2015. "Efficiency Effects of Unit-Based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 61(4), pages 641-658, August.
    7. Valentina Iafolla & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Francesco Nicolli, 2010. "Rifiuti generati, rifiuti in discarica ed efficacia delle politiche ambientali in Europa," ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 0(2), pages 103-135.
    8. Fikret Adaman & Ayse Mumcu, 2011. "Collective Sanctions as a Remedy to the Household Waste Problem," Working Papers 2011/03, Bogazici University, Department of Economics.
    9. Valentina Iafolla & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Francesco Nicolli, 2010. "Are You SURE You Want to Waste Policy Chances? Waste Generation, Landfill Diversion and Environmental Policy Effectiveness in the EU15," Working Papers 2010.77, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    10. Elbert Dijkgraaf & Raymond Gradus & Thomas Kinnaman & Dale W. Jorgenson & Mun S. Ho & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2008. "Comments: Elbert Dijkgraaf and Raymond Gradus, Thomas Kinnaman; and a Correction," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 243-244, Spring.

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