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Location characteristics of inner-city neighborhoods and employment accessibility of low-wage workers

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  • Q Shen

Abstract

Studies that examine spatial characteristics of urban unemployment are often based on some simplistic measures of employment accessibility. In this paper a refined methodological framework for measuring accessibility is presented, which enables the researcher (1) to improve the measurement by accounting for job competition among workers commuting by different modes, and (2) to understand the outcome more thoroughly by distinguishing the effect of location from that of workers' auto ownership. This refined framework is applied to a case study of employment accessibility of low-wage workers living in Boston's inner-city neighborhoods, with primarily 1990 Census demographic and journey-to-work data. The empirical results show clearly that, although the central location of inner-city residence still gives the low-wage workers some advantage, auto ownership is the more important determinant. Low-wage workers living in inner-city neighborhoods on average do not have high employment accessibility because a large percentage of them do not own any motor vehicle and hence have limited spatial mobility. Implications of the findings are discussed and qualified in light of the limitation of the research.

Suggested Citation

  • Q Shen, 1998. "Location characteristics of inner-city neighborhoods and employment accessibility of low-wage workers," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 25(3), pages 345-365, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envirb:v:25:y:1998:i:3:p:345-365
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. David Martín-Barroso & Juan A. Núñez-Serrano & Francisco J. Velázquez, 2015. "The Effect Of Accessibility On Productivity In Spanish Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(5), pages 708-735, November.
    2. Gautier, Pieter A. & Zenou, Yves, 2010. "Car ownership and the labor market of ethnic minorities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 392-403, May.
    3. Martens, Karel & Golub, Aaron & Robinson, Glenn, 2012. "A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 684-695.
    4. David, Martín-Barroso & Juan Andres, Nuñez & Francisco J., Velazquez, 2013. "The efect on firms' Productivity of accessibility. The Spanish manufacturung sector," MPRA Paper 45842, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Itzhak Benenson & Karel Martens & Yodan Rofé & Ariela Kwartler, 2011. "Public transport versus private car GIS-based estimation of accessibility applied to the Tel Aviv metropolitan area," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(3), pages 499-515, December.
    6. Stefan P.T. Groot & Henri L.F. de Groot & Paolo Veneri, 2012. "The Educational Bias in Commuting Patterns: Micro-Evidence for the Netherlands," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-080/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Matthieu Bunel & Elisabeth Tovar, 2012. "Local Job Accessibility Measurement: When the Model Makes the Results. Methodological Contribution and Empirical Benchmarking on the Paris Region," EconomiX Working Papers 2012-22, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    8. Antonio Di Paolo & Anna Matas & Josep Lluís Raymond, 2014. "“Job Accessibility, Employment and Job-Education Mismatch in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona”," IREA Working Papers 201419, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised May 2014.
    9. Ahmed El-Geneidy & David Levinson, 2011. "Place Rank: Valuing Spatial Interactions," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 643-659, December.
    10. Horner, Mark & Downs, Joni, 2014. "Integrating people and place: A density-based measure for assessing accessibility to opportunities," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 7(2), pages 1-18.
    11. Delmelle, Elizabeth Cahill & Casas, Irene, 2012. "Evaluating the spatial equity of bus rapid transit-based accessibility patterns in a developing country: The case of Cali, Colombia," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 36-46.
    12. Scott, Darren M. & Horner, Mark W., 2008. "Examining The Role of Urban Form In Shaping People’s Accessibility to Opportunities: An Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 1(2), pages 89-119.
    13. Jen-Jia Lin & Chi-Hau Chen & Tsung-Yu Hsieh, 2016. "Job accessibility and ethnic minority employment in urban and rural areas in Taiwan," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(2), pages 363-382, June.
    14. Karner, Alex, 2016. "Planning for transportation equity in small regions: Towards meaningful performance assessment," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 46-54.
    15. Ottensmann, John R. & Lindsey, Greg, 2008. "A Use-Based Measure of Accessibility to Linear Features to Predict Urban Trail Use," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 1(1), pages 41-63.
    16. Blumenberg, Evelyn & Moga, Steven & Ong, Paul M., 1998. "Getting Welfare Recipients to Work: Transportation and Welfare Reform, Summary of Conference Proceedings," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt23s208dz, University of California Transportation Center.
    17. repec:eee:trapol:v:59:y:2017:i:c:p:106-115 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Koopmans, Carl & Groot, Wim & Warffemius, Pim & Annema, Jan Anne & Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Sascha, 2013. "Measuring generalised transport costs as an indicator of accessibility changes over time," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 154-159.
    19. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:296-310 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:bla:growch:v:47:y:2016:i:4:p:612-630 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Ahern, Aoife & Vega, Amaya & Caulfield, Brian, 2016. "Deprivation and access to work in Dublin City: The impact of transport disadvantage," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 44-52.
    22. Taylor, Brian D & Garrett, Mark, 1999. "Reconsidering Social Equity in Public Transit," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2bm7b38n, University of California Transportation Center.
    23. Dawkins, Casey J. & Shen, Qing & Sanchez, Thomas W., 2005. "Race, space, and unemployment duration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 91-113, July.
    24. Garrett, Mark & Taylor, Brian D., 2003. "Reconsidering Social Equity in Public Transit," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1gm148mz, University of California Transportation Center.

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