Theory and application of an integrated land-use and transport modelling framework
Over twenty years of effort have gone into the development of a general framework for modelling land-use and transport interaction. This effort has been directed at integrating economic theory with operational planning methods in order to establish models that are advanced in theory, practical in operation, and useful in policymaking. The cornerstone of tffe resulting framework is that the location of activities and the economic linkages between them (in terms of goods, services or labour) are predicted by a spatially disaggregated input - output model with either conventional or more innovative forms. These economic linkages are converted into demands for transport that are assigned to modes and routes, taking account of congestion. Calculated measures of disutility in transport influence the location of activities through time. The entire system is based on a set of markets with 'prices' in money, time, or disutility units, making it possible to assess the effects of input policies or scenarios in economic and social terms as well as in physical units. This framework has been used to develop a wide range of models for different applications. The experience thus gained has helped identify a number cf specific strengths and specific problem areas associated with the framework. The problem areas are, for the most part, related to practical difficulties that arise during calibration because of the complexity of the system. The various strengths of the framework make it most applicable in situations where there is a need for consistent land-use and transport predictions and evaluations, particularly in cases where there are relatively few observed data.
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